In man, the amount of fluid within the body remains relatively constant. Water enters the body through food and water intake. Water is also generated as a by-product as a result of metabolism by oxidation. The water that enters the body varies greatly depending on the type of food intake, amount of water intake, and also due to the physical activities. Water is lost from the body in many ways- water is lost by diffusion through the skin, evaporation from the respiratory tract, sweating, feces, and urine. Water that is vanished by the diffusion method through the skin and the respiratory tract are known as insensible water loss. A very minute amount of water is lost through the feces. The water that is vanished by sweating and urine is significant water loss. The need for drinking water is triggered by the thirst mechanism. The excretion of extra water is done with the help of kidneys which is directed by the hypothalamus. Hypothalamus is responsible for the secretion of antidiuretics hormone (ADH) which is responsible for the absorption of water from the renal tubules.
When the water in the body decreases, there is an increase in the osmotic pressure. An increase in the osmotic pressure stimulates the osmoreceptors of the hypothalamus to release ADH (antidiuretics hormones) or vasopressin. Water permeability in the kidney is increased by the ADH hormones. This results in the absorption of water as a result, less water is excreted through the urine. Through this mechanism, the water balance of the body is maintained. When there is extra water present in the body, then there is a reduction in the osmotic pressure. A decrease in the osmotic pressure stimulates the osmoreceptors of the hypothalamus. There is no release of ADH therefore there is a decrease in the permeability of the distal convoluted tubules and collecting tubules. Therefore water is not absorbed, as a result, excess water is excreted through the urine. Through this mechanism, the water balance of the body is maintained.
Urine is produced by the body in three phases. They are reabsorption, filtration, and secretion. During this process, blood is purified to remove the wastes, and then the filtrate which contains essential elements and water is reabsorbed. The filtrate is a fluid that is more or less like the blood plasma but without the presence of proteins. Tubular reabsorption is a process in which solutes and water from the fluid are reabsorbed and moved back into the bloodstream. The nephrons found in the kidney are accountable for conserving the homeostasis process of the fluid in the body. The kidneys keep the volume of the extracellular fluid at the right levels which are required for the normal functioning of all the tissue of the body. Reabsorption is the major phase of maintaining the water balance takes in the different parts of the kidney such as convoluted tubules, Henleâ€™s loop, and collecting duct. The proximal convoluted tubules consist of the brush borders which are composed of microvilli (finger-like structures). These microvilli provide a greater area for reabsorption of water and other substances into the blood. The proximal convoluted tubules also have dense mitochondria, which supply energy for the absorption of water. The capacity of absorption in the nephrons varies from one portion to another. Most of the reabsorption occurs and it is based on the concentration gradient. Most of the water in the renal tubules is reabsorbed by the Henleâ€™s loop, distal convoluted tubule, and proximal convoluted tubule. A very small amount of water is absorbed in the collecting ducts. The rate of absorption varies depending upon the ADH and aldosterone hormone, these hormones are responsible for the amount of water that is lost through urine. The ADH hormone is secreted due to a stimulus from the hypothalamus. ADH and aldosterone increase the permeability of the distal convoluted tubule, Henleâ€™s loop, proximal convoluted tubule, and collecting ducts.
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