Object oriented programming concepts include classes, objects, data abstraction, data encapsulation, inheritance, polymorphism, dynamic binding and message passing.
Classes and Objects: Classes in object programming languages are similar to the blueprint which has the data members and the member functions. Objects are basically the instances of the classes.
A class named bicycle has its data members like cost, weight and functions like braking (), pedaling () etc. Trek is the object for the class bicycle. Trek can use all the data members and the member functions that are the part of the bicycle class. In the same way, a greater umber of objects can be created for the classbicycle and they can be assigned values.
Data abstraction is a concept where only the essential data is shown, and the irrelevant information is hidden from the user. For example, when an e-mail is sent to someone, the system shows the message â€œE-mail sentâ€ and it does not show all the internal operations that happen while sending the mail.
Example for Abstraction
using namespace std;
cout<< “Example for data abstraction”;
Example for data abstraction
The above example program prints the output message â€œExample for data abstractionâ€ on the userâ€™s screen. The user can only see the message â€œExample for data abstractionâ€ on his screen. The operations that are performed by the program statements â€œcoutâ€ and â€œiostreamâ€ to make the message to get printed on the userâ€™s screen are hidden from the user. Hence the concept of data abstraction becomes evident from this example program.
The process of wrapping up of the entire set of the data members and member function into a single unit is called as encapsulation. Encapsulation concepts are useful in object-oriented programming to avoid direct access to the data. The data can be accessed only through the functions of that class.
Polymorphism is the ability to take more than one form. By using polymorphism, it is possible to make the object to behave differently in various situations. Polymorphism is classified into two types. They are runtime and compile time polymorphisms.
Inheritance is a very important concept of object-oriented programming where the derived class inherits the properties of the base class just like how the child inherits the properties of its parent.
Â· Dynamic binding
Dynamic binding is a concept of the object-oriented programming. In dynamic binding the set of code that is executed in reference to the function is determined only at the run time. It is also called as run time binding or late binding.
Â· Message passing
Objects communicate in OOPS programming language communicate among themselves by receiving and sending information among themselves. A message is sent between the objects by mentioning the objectâ€™s name and the functionâ€™s name. Message passing invokes the function of the receiving object to get the intended result.
Applications of object-oriented programming
Â· Object oriented Programming is widely applied in designing and manufacturing applications.
Â· Object oriented Programming has its main applications in the client server systems.
Â· Object oriented Programming is very useful in building real time system designs that are very difficult to produce.
Â· Object oriented Programming has its wide implications in the simulation and modeling domain. Simulation and modeling involve many communications between them, and such communications can be easily achieved by Object-Oriented Programming.
Â· Object oriented Programming is very useful to handle hyper texts. Hyper texts are texts that point to another text. Making a layout for the hypertext is very much possible using the Object-Oriented Programming.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Object-Oriented programming
Object oriented programming has its own advantages and disadvantages and they are mentioned below.
Â· Faster development: Since object-oriented programming has the feature of reusability it makes easier to develop the codes very faster. Object-oriented programming languages are equipped with many libraries of objects. The codes that are developed for one project will be useful for the other projects also.
Â· Improvements in the software productivity: Object-oriented programming greatly supports modularprogramming. It is possible to segregate the tasks in the object-based program development. Object oriented programs are extensible and there are enough possibilities to include new behaviors and attributes. All these features certainly increase the productivity.
Â· Cannot be opted for all types of problems: There are many types of problems that a programmer can solve. Those problems may involve programming styles focusing on logics, programming styles focusing on procedures, programming styles focusing on the processing. So, object-oriented programming cannot solve all the types of problems.
Â· The learning curve in object-oriented programming is steeper: The programmers might not have the idea of object-oriented programming naturally. The Oops concepts line dynamic binding, message passing, polymorphism can be eventually learnt by the programmer. It purely depends on the thought process of the programmer to use the object-oriented programming. Programmer must have clear understanding of the object-oriented programming before using this approach.
Â· Bigger programs: Compared to the programs that are written using the procedure-oriented languages, the object-oriented programs are larger in size.
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