Transportation in Root:
The space between the soil particles contains water molecules. The water and minerals are absorbed by the root hairs. The water molecules first enter the cell wall of the root hair by osmosis. The tip of plant root forms an outgrowth called root hairs which function effectively in taking up water and minerals from the soil. Root hair cells do not contain chloroplasts and are not exposed to sunlight; therefore, they lack the process of photosynthesis. But these root hairs contain larger vacuoles that allow the storage of water and minerals. They contain a large surface area to absorb and store the water from the soil. Water first enters and fills the vacuole of the root hair cells. There are many elongated root hairs that are found in plant root which increases the root surface area for water absorption. They also contain thin walls to increase the intake of water by osmosis. The presence of large vacuoles helps in water absorption and transporting it to the next cells. These vacuoles contain salts that speed up the water absorption from the soil. Root hairs do not have cuticles since it would block the water absorption. Water from the root hair cells now moves from the root hair cells to the parenchyma cells of the cortex in two ways. Some water may enter the cell by the process of osmosis. The maximum quantity of water travels in the walls of parenchyma cells by a simple diffusion process. Then, the water passes through the endodermis to enter the xylem and later it will pass through the xylem of the stem.
Transport of water and minerals:
The plant absorbs water and minerals from the soil through root hairs to transport it to other parts of the plant. Plants need water in order to carry out the photosynthesis process to make food. The transportation of root in absorbing water and minerals occurs through xylem tissues called xylem vessels and tracheids. Through xylem tissues, the absorbed water and mineral salts from the root are transported to other parts of the plant body.
Xylem vessel and Tracheids:
Xylem vessel consists of a long tube made up of dead cells connected end to end. Therefore, a xylem vessel is considered a non-living tube that runs from the roots of the plant and runs through the stem, and reaches every leaf. The open tube is formed due to the break in the end wall of the cell. Xylem vessels do not have nuclei or cytoplasm, and the walls of xylem vessels are made up of lignin or cellulose. Xylem vessel helps in transporting water and minerals and also provides strength to the stem to keep it upright because of lignin which is very hard and strong. For example, wood is made up of lignified xylem tissue. Xylem vessels contain pits in their cell wall where the lignin is not deposited. Both xylem vessels and tracheid help in transporting water in flowering plants, whereas tracheids are considered as the water-conducting tissues in non-flowering plants. Tracheids contain lignified dead cells with no open ends. They have long thin and spindle-shaped cells. All plants contain tracheid which contains pits through which the water flows from one tracheid to another.
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