The integumentary system forms the largest organ system in human beings. In addition, to protect against bacteria, toxins, and other external elements, the skin and accessory structures also serve as a sensory organ, moderating body temperature and electrolyte balance and generating vitamin D, among other activities. The underlying hypodermis has critical roles in storing lipids, forming a “cushion” over underlying tissues, and providing insulation against cold temperatures.
According to the surface area, sixteen percent of human body weight consists of two layers, followed by the superficial epidermis and deeper dermis. The epidermis is the integumentary system composed of the physical protection, a skin tightly network of cells, of which the layers contribute to its strength. It has a surface area of 1.5-2 square meters and is composed of the superficial epidermis and the deeper dermis. The integumentary system consists of the following components:
Skin is a type of protection (epidermis, dermis)
Functions of the skin
The integumentary system serves various purposes:
Physical protection: Skin can be defined as a tightly packed cluster of cells, consists of many layers that contribute to its strength. The epidermis protects the outer environment.
The outermost part of the epidermis is a layer of dead keratin that can withstand the environment, and the dermis provides the epidermis with blood. It also has nerves that endanger hypodermis, providing physical cushioning to any mechanical trauma through adipose storage. The secretion of protective films takes place by the glands throughout the body. Nails armors the digit whereas hairs through the body filter and harmful particles.
Immunity: A physical barrier as immunity to the body is the skin, preventing residual immune cells, myeloid and lymphocyte cells. It can travel to the periphery and activate the immune preventing viruses from directly entering the body. The skin’s antimicrobial peptides and lipids operate as a biomolecular barrier, disrupting bacterial membranes. Healing is achieved when the integumentary system boosts wound healing, hemostasis, and proliferation. The body temperature of the skin is maintained by vasoconstriction, where conservation and release of heat occur. The skin contains resident immune cells, including lymphoid and myeloid, some of which can move to the periphery and activate the better immune system.
Wound healing: Whenever a human body gets injured, the integumentary system performs its function by coordinating for hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling.
Thermoregulation: To regulate body temperature, the skin contains large pores that are superficially vascularized, allowing vasoconstriction to conserve and release heat.
Vit D synthesis: Vitamin D is obtained by sunlight and oral consumption (vital for bone health).
Sensory: Touch, pain, temperature, and vibration are all sensed by sensory nerve endings in the skin. A wide range of signals can be combined to comprehend the external world and help the body react correctly.
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