The effects of pesticide residues can be categorized into three categories:
Mild poisoning: The symptoms may include headache, dizziness, diarrhea, and insomnia. It can also lead to irritation in the eyes, throat, skin, and nose.
Moderate poisoning: The symptoms include blurred vision, confusion, vomiting, construction of throat, and rapid pulse rate. The rapid pulse rate may occur due to fever and dehydration.
Severe poisoning: Exposure to large quantities of pesticides may lead to chemical burns on the skin. In addition, the person might get unconscious due to exposure. Other severe effects include breathing inability and excessive phlegm in the airways.
Setting Pesticide Residue Limits
Trace amounts of pesticide residues are present in the food items. The amount may be high or low according to the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) and Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) value. Therefore, before the usage of food items, the MRL is checked for the given pesticide. The condition to be followed are:
The account of toxicity of the pesticide and its breakdown forms is measured.
The amount of pesticide applied to the crop is taken into account.
The amount of residues present in the food item is calculated.
Exposure on all routes such as water, crop, and residential exposure is calculated.
Harmful effects on the body.
Food consumption according to age and health.
Account of toxicity, chemistry, and exposure of the pesticide.
MRL is set at levels far below the amount that leads to health concerns.
All populations, age groups, people with medical conditions are taken into account.
Calculation of Pesticide Residues
Pesticide regulation is defined as the management of the nutrition-prison trade-off. The regulation of safety intake according to body weight, age, and intake safety for a lifetime is defined by calculating acceptable intake for pesticides. Acceptable daily intake (ADI) is defined as the number of pesticide residues in a food item that we can consume daily without harming our health. Maximum residue limit (MRL) is defined as the maximum amount of residues that are to be present on the food item. MRL is based on good agricultural practice (GAP). ADI and MRL are calculated for calculating the daily exposure.
Steps for calculating daily exposure are:
Determining the acceptable limit- toxicological studies on rats and dogs are used to determine the lowest observed or no observed adverse effect level (LOAEL/NOAEL). NOAEL is defined as the measure of exposure of the pesticide residue to the food item.
The amount that can be safely ingested is to be calculated.
Limits of residues are calculated- Acceptable daily intake (ADI) by calculating NOAEL. The safety factor used is 100.
Maximum residue limit (MRL) is calculated based on field tests on crops and then comparing the value with other countries.
The limit residue is calculated. It is defined as the least pesticide residue that is feasible for the crops.
Theoretical maximum daily intake is calculated by adding the diet section, the daily diet of the human being.
Daily exposure is calculated by comparing the theoretical intake, estimated intake, and measured intake.
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