Water on earth exists in three states: solid, liquid, and gaseous. Water at 0Âº Celsius and one atmosphere of pressure exist a dynamic equilibrium between the liquid and gas state. While at 20Âº Celsius room temperature it exists in a colorless, odorless, and tasteless liquid state. Water in solid-state exhibits a hexagonal structure with oxygen in the center and is surrounded by two hydrogen atoms. A boundary is seen around the oxygen and hydrogen atoms that enclose the electron density within them. The behavior of water is unusual in solid-state. That is a slight increase in the temperature also leads to the melting and expansion of its solid-state. The solid-state of water is highly dependent on its surrounding environment. Due to the exhibition of an increased electronegative charge with a pair of two lone electrons, the oxygen atoms in the water molecules exhibit a bent structure.
The water molecule’s positive hydrogen end attracts a nearby water molecule’s negative oxygen end based on a dipole-dipole force, which leads to hydrogen bond formation as the hydrogen atom gets strongly attracted to the adjacent atomsâ€™ lone-pair of electrons. The oxygen atom can get attached to two individual positively charged hydrogen atom molecules due to the presence of two lone pair electrons withheld by them obtained from two hydrogen atoms present in the water molecules. Thus in a solid-state, the two covalent and two hydrogen bonds are formed around one oxygen atom to exhibit a tetrahedral geometry.
Lattice in the liquid phase of water:
At 25Âº Celcius and 1-atmosphere pressure which is the standard condition, the water molecules get attracted to each other by a dipole-dipole force and exist in a liquid state through hydrogen bonds between them and this is similar to its solid-state. Water molecules in the liquid state take up the shape on which they are poured. It exists in an imaginary tetrahedron structure whose corners show the presence of four hydrogens. Overall in a liquid state, the water molecules are present in a cluster that is attached by hydrogen bonds. Besides the structure of the water molecules in the liquid state is not constant. Between each picosecond, they undergo random motion thermally. Based on the volume of water, its frame, and time, the structure and molecular arrangement of atoms in the liquid state is determined. Because between each picosecond, the hydrogen bonds that exist between two water molecules get broken and the structure of clusters in which the water molecules exist is reformed.
In a liquid state, the water molecules are difficult to separate due to the existence of the dipole force, which in turn increases its boiling point property. The water is an atmospheric molecule and in its liquid state, its chemical and physical properties allow them to be a part of numerous acid-base reactions. That is, it can be acidic or basic based on the chemicals that are combined with the water molecules.
Other phases of water:
In addition to the solid and liquid phase, water when subjected to a certain amount of heat gets evaporated as water vapors or attains its gaseous phase.
When water is subjected to a set critical temperature and pressure it forms into a homogenous fluid phase which is a mix of the liquid and gas phase. This phase occurs in extreme unhabitable conditions only.
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