The main feature of some dominant genes is that they generally have constant or variable expression.
Another essential feature of the dominant genes is that they can have reduced penetrance, which sometimes means a person may have dominant genes but not show any gene sign.
The reduction of this feature (penetrance) is essential to attain the susceptibility of the genes. For example, if a child has an inherited abnormal gene and the other active gene has also stopped its activity ( in the case of tumor suppressor gene p53), the cells will grow and divide in a non-regulated way, which will result in causing cancer. Thus, acquiring the mutation in both the genes will pose a higher risk of the abnormality rather than the risk of the inherited gene from a single parent.
The way to know the inherited Traits in the individuals:
The type of heredity in the individuals can be known by the use of pedigree analysis. The process of Pedigree Analysis tends to determine the record of the inherited traits through the genes that may pass from one generation to another through the diagram called a family tree. Pedigree is the process of representing the family tree employed in the case of human beings and animals, including pets. In general, the process of pedigree is utilized to know the transmission of specific traits through two main tools:
Principle of probability or the chances of difference that occurred in one or more progenies
Elimination of the alternatives caused in the particular generation.
The two main factors are described for the representation of dominant, autosomal traits in individuals according to pedigree analysis that is given below:
If the disease does not skip generations or no criss-cross formation occurs between generations, the trait will be called the autosomal dominant trait.
Also, the affected parents from one generation can produce unaffected children in the second generation. However, one of any children will necessarily carry the affected trait (especially from father to son).
Examples of diseases caused by autosomal dominant traits
Some of the most commonly occurring diseases due to the transfer of affected autosomal dominant traits into the progenies from parents are Huntington’s disease, neurofibromatosis, and polycystic kidney disease. Some other diseases are also included under autosomal dominant diseases, which are listed as given below:
Achondroplasia- is a form of dwarfism that inhibits the growth of long bones.
Polydactylyâ€“ the disease is characterized by the presence of extra fingers and toes.
Brachydactylyâ€“in this disorder, abnormal short fingers and toes can be present
Neurofibromatosis â€“ Tumor like growth can occur on any part of the body
Aniridia â€“ the disease is characterized by the absence of iris in the eye.
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