Auditory communication included coos, booms, hoots, and low-frequency sounds. Few species of dinosaurs were thought to have used foot-stomping, tail-thumping, and jaw-clapping for auditory communication.
Coos, booms, and hoots: Booms and hoots are the closed mouth sounds that are produced without opening the beak. The sound is emitted through the skin in the neck. This type of communication is observed in birds today. As the larynx and syrinx (voice box) was different in dinosaurs compared to present mammals and birds, the possibility of communication must have been through closed-mouth sounds. They were incapable of making complex sounds like birds and mammals. The presence of syrinx in birds makes them produce complicated sounds for communication. In non-avian dinosaurs, the structure of syrinx is absent. Therefore, it strongly suggests that communication must have been through booms and hoots. The coos of dinosaurs were thought to be similar as seen in doves. These sounds were limited to dinosaurs, which were as large as doves.
Resonating chambers: Based on the fossil evidence, it was concluded that the skull of dinosaurs possessed resonating chambers. These chambers were similar to the hollow tubes of brass horns. Few species such as hollow-crested duckbills and lambeosaurines had hollow crests in their skulls which produced low-frequency sounds and resonated calls, which allowed them to communicate with each other. Few species of armored dinosaurs possessed a long nasal passage in their snouts and they produced honk sounds, which were thought to have functioned as resonating chambers of lambeosaurines.
Acoustic sounds: Other auditory signals in dinosaurs included sounds made by their body parts. They produced sounds through jaw-clapping, foot-stomping, and tail-thumping. These assumptions were made by observing modern birds. Non-avian birds were thought to have communicated through their feathers by making sounds by beating wings in the air (thumping) and allowing air through their tail feathers (winnowing). Sauropod and diplodocus species possessed long whip-like tails that were capable of producing supersonic sounds that traveled long distances. Based on the research, the arrangement of the eardrums and middle ear of the dinosaurs were capable of hearing low-frequency sounds.
Visual Communication in Dinosaurs:
Communication through feathers: The feathers present in avian dinosaurs were thought to be very colorful and were mainly used for visual display, especially during the breeding season, to find mates and to threaten the predators. The present-day birds use feathers for visual display. They also use a combination of feathers and dance for communication that is more precise. Few species of feathered dinosaurs such as non-avian maniraptoran had long feathers that were arranged like wings. Though they were incapable of flying, their wings were used for visual display. Modern-day birds use feathers mainly for attracting a mate and to threaten the rival or predator species. Therefore it is thought that non-avian dinosaurs also used their feathers for the same purpose. Based on the information about the feather coloration, it is suggested that different colors of feathers displayed different information.
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