no 3. Use the following passage to answer the subsequent questions about experimental design. You conduct an experiment testing the effects of the seastar Pisaster, a top predator, on community structure in marine intertidal communities in Oregon. You hypothesize that removing Pisaster will reduce species diversity because seastars are keystone predators and remove competitively-dominant invertebrates through predation, which prevents competitive exclusion and enhances both evenness and species richness. In six separate 5 x 5 meter plots, you remove Pisaster weekly over the course of 3 months and add them to a separate set of six 5 x 5 meter plots. Finally, in six other 5 x 5 meter plots, you do not remove or add Pisaster. After the experiment, you count numbers of individuals and determine relative abundance (%) of major invertebrate species (all species >5% abundance) in each plot. Snow 3a. What is the hypothesis ? (2 pts) Benecos Bovib vaatio Thomsen osan 3b. What is the independent variable? (2 pts) 3c. What is the dependent variable? (2 pts) 3d. What is the number of replicates (sample size)? (2 pts) 3e. Is there a control, and what is it? (2 pts)
31) Which of the following statements concerning community diversity is incorrect?
A) Diversity increases ecosystem nutrient retention. B) Diversity considers both the number and distributions of species / taxa C) Diversily usually is higher in tropical communities relative to temperate communities. D) Animal diversity is linked to plant diversity. E) all of the above are true.
32) We would anticipate competitive exclusion to be reduced when disturbance levels are…
A) Frequent B) Infrequent C) Intermediate D) Severe
33) A forest community consists of 4 red maples, 3 willow oaks, and 1 alder. The species richness of this community is:
A) 8 / 3 = 2.67 B) 8 C) the natural log of the proportion of each species, multiplied by the proportion, and summed. D) 3 E) not possible to calculate from the data given.
34) The influences of nutrients and temperatures on ecosystems would be considered:
a) nutrient-related controls. b) top-down controls. c) bottom-up controls. d) base-level controls.
35) Examples of density-dependent effects is
a)competition b)exotic species introduction c) Fire d) disease e)Both A and D
36) Foundation species…
A) …..are usually primary producers. B) …are important despite their low abundance. C) only affect primary consumers. D) …are the plant community of any ecosystem.
37) Difference in climatic stability suggests which biome would have higher diversity?
A) tropical rainforest B) temperate forest C) Mediterranean system D) tropical dry forest
38) You are examining a very simple pond community containing only phytoplankton, zooplankton, planktivorous fish and piscivorous (fish-eating) fish. Your graduate adviser cannot believe that you found such a perfect habitat for a field study! Which of the following are you likely to discover as you manipulate the system?
A) …an increase in piscivores decreases populations at all lower trophic levels. B) …the removal of piscivores results in higher species diversity. C) …an increase in piscivores results in a decrease in phytoplankton. D) … the removal of planktivores results in an increase in phytoplankton.
39) In aquatic systems, primary productivity is primarily controlled by
A) light B) pollutants C) temperature D) nutrient availability E) none of these
40) Think through the “mutualistic balance sheet concept. Which of the following would you expect to be true? “note: MF stands for mycorrhizal fungus*
A) In poor soils, the MF community will tend to be more mutualistic. B) In poor soils, the MF community will tend to be less mutualistic. C) In fertile soils, the MF community will tend to be more mutualistic. D) In fertile soils, the MF community will tend to be less mutualistic.
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