Adoption studies are analyzed from various perspectives. Adoption studies are carried in major three types. In the first type, a comparison between adopted children and their biological parents is made. If the similarity is found between the adopted child and his biological parents, genetic factors are known to influence the phenotype. In the second type, comparison is made between the children that are adopted and the biological children of the adoptive parents.
Although the adoptive and biological children would not be genetically related, still there might be certain factors that are similar in both children. Such factors are known as environmental factors. In the third type of adoption studies, we can study the gene-environment interactions. The traits found in the biological parents can influence the genetic risk in adoption studies. The gene-environment interaction is known to be present when children already with higher genetic risk are vulnerable to environmental risk factors.
There are certain difficulties while conducting adoption studies, such as obtaining information about biological parents. Adoption studies are carried out on several presumptions. These presumptions limit the conclusions the research may draw. They include taking into account only limited factors in adoptive homes, often assuming that there exists no similarity between the adoptive parents and biological parents. When the adoptive family adopts the children, the latter is violated. These families are then removed from such adoptive studies.
Leonard Heston was the first to conduct an adoption study on schizophrenia. He published it in 1966. He showed that the chances in biological children of parents with schizophrenia were high and likely to develop schizophrenia. This does not depend on if they were taken care of by their parents or adopted. This study formed the basis of the fact that schizophrenia is genetic. Heston interviewed the child and the schizophrenic mother and the child with the mother who was not schizophrenic. He conducted this study on more than one family. He obtained the same results that the schizophrenic child inherited the gene from his or her mother. Certain similar studies have exhibited that mental disorders like alcoholism, depression, antisocial behaviour, and schizophrenia-associated with adoption. These conditions are influenced by environmental factors like family conflict, deviant communication and poor cohesion. Research has exhibited that certain disorder may not be genetic but arises in adopted children. It is assumed that these disorders have developed over some time. These disorders are due to the manner, a child is brought up. The child may also face certain psychological issues. After a child gets adopted, he/she finds difficulties in relating to their true self. The adopting families are made aware of such psychological issues that the child may face.
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