The exocrine and the endocrine are the two kinds of glands present in humans. Exocrine glands secrete enzymes that are necessary for body function, and they do not secrete hormones. But there are several glands associated with endocrine glands that secrete hormones. The pituitary gland, the pancreatic gland, the thyroid gland, the pineal gland, the pancreas, and the adrenal gland are the different types of endocrine glands that produce necessary hormones. Several hormones are responsible for emotional balance as well as imbalance. Some of them are:
Oxytocin is often described as a love hormone or bonding hormone, or cuddle hormone, produced by the hypothalamus in the pituitary gland. It involves childbirth, lactation, sex activity, and so on. It helps in creating trust, empathy, positive relationships, and so on. Oxytocin helps to relieve stress, anxiety, and mood swings. The lower level of oxytocin helps leads to fear, depression, insomnia, and so on.
A pair of adrenal glands are present at the anterior part of each kidney. The medulla present in the adrenal gland, and several neurons are associated with the medulla oblongata of the brain secrete epinephrine (adrenaline). This hormone takes part in a fight or flight response to stress. Emotions like fear, excitement, and irritation are provoked by epinephrine during the time of panic attacks and emergencies.
Norepinephrine (noradrenaline) is a hormone as well as neurotransmitter produced by the several neurons of the sympathetic nervous system and medulla of the adrenal glands. It helps in improving the energy and consciousness of the brain. Norepinephrine (noradrenaline), as a hormone, operates along with epinephrine in case of arousing emotions during emergencies. It also takes part in a fight or flight response to stress. As a neurotransmitter, it passes information from neurons to other parts of the body. When epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) levels are low in humans, this creates depression, and the excess of hormones creates disorders like schizophrenia.
The substantia nigra, the ventral tegmental area, and the hypothalamus of the brain secrete dopamine, a hormone as well as a neurotransmitter. Dopamine takes part in movement control, mood, memory, alertness, happiness, and decision making. It is a hormone often connected with pleasure and reward. When a person is doing an activity that creates pleasure, often dopamine levels are increased in the body. For example, when a person is craving a particular food, even the smell of the food, or just the view of the food, increases the level of dopamine. When a person cannot have that particular food he craves, it creates disappointment, and the level of dopamine becomes low. When the level of dopamine decreases, it causes mood swings and irritation in a person.
The ovaries produce estrogen, which is the primary sex hormone in females. Estrogen has a tendency to increase the level of serotonin, which is often described as a happy hormone. When the estrogen level becomes low, it leads to mood swings, depression, and so on. At the same time, the high estrogen level can ruin our system. Monoamine oxidase is an enzyme responsible for the deactivation of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. Estrogen helps in reducing the level of monoamine oxidase enzyme so that the level of these hormones can be maintained.
Corpus luteum, a temporary gland present in the ovaries, produces progesterone, a female sex hormone after ovulation (the release of an egg). It is an essential hormone in the female reproductive system. Progesterone is often associated with a depressing effect. There is a small almond-shaped part present in the brain called the amygdala. The studies have shown that progesterone can trigger the amygdala, which is the brainâ€™s principal alerting system and the first part to respond during threats and fear. This could be the reason for a depressing effect on humans.
Testosterone, a male reproductive hormone, is produced by the interstitial or Leydigâ€™s cells present in the testes. But the level of testosterone required is decided by the hypothalamus in the pituitary gland. The hypothalamus sends information to the testes about how much testosterone is needed for the body to function. Testosterone helps in the proper development of the penis and testes, deep voice, muscle and bone development, facial and pubic hair growth, sperm production, and so on in males. Testosterone creates a happy mood and sexual desires in males. This hormone helps in keeping the mood calm. When testosterone is low in males, it leads to the absence of masculinity. Testosterone is also present in females. It helps them in maintaining the function of ovaries, bone strength, and so on.
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