Geography of Water Resources
Selected Lecture Diagrams Part 1
DistribuDon of Earth’s Water
Fresh water 3%
freshwater Fresh surface water (liquid)
Ice caps
Other 0.9%
Water 0.3%
Swamps 11%
Rivers 2%
(Rutherford & Williams 2015)
Changes in the Physical State of Water
Liquid Solid
A potential water-production (supply) scenario in a watershed or region.
Peter H. Gleick, and Meena Palaniappan PNAS
©2010 by National Academy of Sciences
Theoretical logistics curve showing increasing annual production of renewable water from a
Peter H. Gleick, and Meena Palaniappan PNAS
©2010 by National Academy of Sciences
Use of water of
up to to natural
limit of
14 Beneficial Use Impairments (BUI)
• RestricDons on Fish and Wildlife
• TainDng of Fish and Wildlife
• Degraded Fish and Wildlife
• Fish Tumors of Other DeformiDes
• Bird or Animal DeformiDes or
ReproducDon Problems
• DegradaDon of Benthos
(organisms the live in sediment or
near bo^om)
• RestricDons on Dredging

• EutrophicaDon or Undesirable Algae
• RestricDons on Drinking Water
ConsumpDon or Taste and Odor
• Beach Closings
• DegradaDon of AestheDcs (based on
percepDon, e.g. oil slick, colour, odor)
• Added Costs to Agriculture or Industry
(extra costs before using water)
• DegradaDon of Phytoplankton (free
floaDng microscopic plants) and
Zooplankton (small free floaDng micro
organisms) both base of food chain
• Loss of Fish and Wildlife Habitat
Targeted at
Three Different
Example of Regulatory Pyramid
(Ayres & Braithwaite 1992)
• Lower levels focus on dialogue for
compliance such as
persuasion & educaDon
• Higher levels are more
demanding and puniDve
• Used by Melbourne Water
agency to enforce farm
dam laws
Ladder of Economic Development
1 billion – too sick to step on the ladder
1 billion – high income world
(1/6th total earth’s population)
1.5 billion – the poor (just above subsistence)
2.5 billion –middle income
(earn a few thousand dollars per year)
(Sachs 2005)
(Note: June 2019 populaDon of Earth 7.57 billion)
(Chambers 2007)
UN Millennium Development Goals
Started in 2000 with target of 2015
2030 Agenda 2030 Agenda
Approved 25 September 2015 by UN Sustainable Development Summit
2030 Agenda UN SDGs
Targets Indicators
(Asian Development Bank 2016)
Global Water Use
PotenDal impacts of use of
water in agriculture
Water extracDon
for agriculture
Water polluDon
Reduced supply
Saline Soils
Animal waste runoff
PesDcide runoff
FerDlizer Runoff
Organic polluDon
Suspended solids
PesDcide toxicity
(Rutherford & Williams 2015) (blood disorder too li^le O2 delivered to cells )
OrganisaDon for Economic CooperaDon and Development
OECD Principles on Water Governance , 2015
Selected Overview of European Union
Water Management
Driving improved
HolisDc water
Management at a
River catchment level
Driving changes in
pracDce to support
achievement of
good environmental
status – primarily
Water quality
Controlling the
development and
management of
water quality/flows
• Water Framework DirecDve
• Common Agricultural Policy
• Water Framework DirecDves
• Nitrates DirecDve
• Drinking Water DirecDve
• Environmental Liability
• Industrial Emissions DirecDve
• Floods DirecDve
• Environmental Impact Assessment
(European Network for Rural Development 2017)
A cultural theory of drinking water
risks, values and insDtuDonal change
(Koehler 2018)
Pluralist soluDons between state, market and communiDes
Conceptual Framework on four posiDons in dealing
with uncertainDes in research on water management
(Ludwig, van Slobbe, Cofino 2014)
Focusing on the present
AnDcipaDng the future
Minimizing uncertainDes AccepDng uncertainDes
Context of “issue-driven”
approaches to IWRM
Context of “bo^om-up” analysis
of adapDve water management
Context of “expert dominated”
approaches to IWRM
Context of “top-down” analysis
of adapDve water management
InteracDons of Science & Governance at different scales
for knowledge and robust adapDon strategies
(Van Pelt & Swart 2011)
(Global Climate
Water Governance & Social JusDce:
four research lines (Boelens 2017)

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