Renal tubules are the part of the bowman’s capsule of the kidney, terminating at the collecting duct. The renal tubule is categorized into three parts, which includes-
â€¢ The proximal convoluted tubule is a part of the renal tubule that is principally responsible for the absorption of water, electrolytes, and glucose and then transfers them back to the blood.
â€¢ Loop of Henle- It is a part of the renal tubule that causes the absorption of most electrolytes, including potassium, sodium, and chloride, which causes their transportation to the blood.
â€¢ Distal convoluted tubule- is responsible for absorption of most of the sodium back into the blood. It takes in potassium and acids.
By the end of the renal tubule, the fluid is diluted and is charged with urea. As the filtrate passes within the renal tubule’s proximal tubule, the absorption of water and salt occurs to the capillaries of blood present around the tubule. Other molecules are also reabsorbed within the proximal tubule because this part of the nephron is responsible for separating the molecules that needed to be absorbed by the body from those molecules that needed to be excreted in the urine. Reabsorption within the proximal tubule is highly dependent on the maintenance of fluid balance or homeostasis in the body. In contrast with the distal duct of the nephron, and the collecting duct, they are principally concerned with the maintenance of acid-base balance, water balance, and electrolyte balance in the body. The process of reabsorption occurs via chemical as well as the physical way and sometimes also by hormonal regulation.
In this case, the function of the tubule decreased the appearance of filtrate, and urine came out to be the same. If the filtration rate is enhanced, there will be less time available for the modification of urine when it passes from the tubules.
In physiological terms, transport maximum or tubular maximum is referred to as the end in which increase concentration of the components does not cause any kind of movement of substances over the plasma membrane. For all the molecules or substances, the excretion quantity can be calculated with the following formula- Excretion= (Filtration + Secretion)- Reabsorption
Glucose reabsorption threshold:
The tubular maximum is often described concerning glucose and para-amino hippuric acid. The tubular maximum concerning glucose is demonstrated by the transporting capacity of the SGLT or sodium-glucose cotransporter system. More amount of glucose is not reabsorbed; instead, it gets passed out of the body into the urine. The tubular maximum concerning glucose tubular transport system within an average adult human is 375mg/min. The maximum tubular value can enhance in the condition when there is an enhanced glomerular filtration rate when the concentration of glucose level in the blood increases by 300mg/dl. The appearance of glucose in the urine can be marked when the blood glucose level is more or equal to 200mg/dl. This causes the variation in the filtration load and decreases the tubular maximum. The blood glucose concentration of 200mg/dl and the filtration load of 250mg/min are collectively called glucose threshold.
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