Multiple input devices are available to send data into the computer directly. These devices usually take an input from the user in specific form (text or sound) and then coverts it into machine readable form for processing. Most frequently used input devices are:
Mouse: It is a pointing device used to move the cursor on the screen to provide specific input to the computer. Generally a mouse works on a flat surface and has three buttons to trigger an action: left button, right button and in center a scroll bar to scroll the things on a computer screen. Laptops have inbuilt touchpad that acts as a mouse. Types of mouses available are: optical mouse, mechanical mouse, trackball mouse and wireless mouse.
Keyboard: keyboard has different keys for characters, symbols, numbers, functions or letters. Input data or instruction can be provided to computer by pressing the specific keys. A keyboard can be attached to a computer by USB port or Bluetooth. QWERTY and AZERTY keyboards are mostly used.
Scanner: It scans images, text documents or printed pages and converts them to the digital file to be displayed on a computer screen as output. Scanner uses an optical technology to transfer pictures or a text image into a computer and then these images can be modified, saved or printed. Flatbet scanner, Drum Scanner, Photo scanner and Sheetfed scanner are some types of scanners available.
Digitizer: Digitizer has a flat screen surface and comes with a pen or stylus. Users can draw images using stylus on the surface of digitizer. These drawn images will appear on the computer screen and can be modified easily. Normally it is used to digitize handwritten signatures on online forms.
Microphone: A device that provides input data in the form of voice signals to a computer. These audio signals are converted to digital format and then can be stored, edited or uploaded. Generally used in chatting, online gaming, teleconferencing and recording audio for music or podcasts.
Webcam: Webcam is a camera attached to a computer or built-in in a laptop. It is used to take photographs or to capture videos and then store them into computer memory. These pictures can be shared later or uploaded onto the internet.
Biometric devices: These devices are used to scan the biological features of a person like fingerprints, face recognition or retina matching for their identification. Frequently used biometric devices are: Fingerprint scanner, Voice scanner, Retina scanner and Face scanner.
Other input devices include: Bar Code Reader, MICR (Magnetic Ink Character Reader), Light Pen, Touch screen, Touch Pad, Joystick, Digital Camera, Paddle, Light gun and many more.
Input data formats in computer languages
Programs or softwares are designed to solve the problems of various users; the input format for each program varies according to user requirements. In C++, a predefined variable â€˜cinâ€™ is used to take input from the user along with the extraction operator â€˜>>â€™. cin pronounced as â€˜see-inâ€™ is used to read data entered through keyboard as shown in example below:
cout<<â€œEnter Your Ageâ€;
cin>>a; // gets input for age
cout<<â€œYour Age is:â€ << a;
User will input a number as his age and it will be stored in variable â€˜aâ€™ and then output will be displayed as the number entered by the user. In the same way â€˜scanfâ€™ is used in C language to take get input data.
In Java, a scanner class is used to retrieve input in the form of integer, string or Boolean data. int nextInt () method is used to get input data in integer form and string nextLine () to get input data as string:
system.out.println (â€œEnter a Numberâ€);
int n = in.nextInt (); // gets input data as a number
system.out.println(â€œThe entered number isâ€ +n);
In HTML, a variety of input types are used while designing webpages. These input types can be a text, image, color, URL, email, number, button or checkbox.
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