Every person has two copies, each of which is received from both parents. In all humans, most genes are the same but a small number of genes (less than 1 percent of the total) vary slightly between individuals. In their sequence of DNA bases, alleles are variants of the same gene with minor variations. These small distinctions contribute to the distinctive physical characteristics of each individual. 23 pairs of chromosomes are present in the human cell. Each of the features regulated by one or more genes is the phenotype. Some characteristics often arise from defective genes and from genes that are created due to new mutations. Based on the code or the protein that they produce, genes differ in size. The same DNA is found in all cells in the human body. Because of the various kinds of genes that are turned on and which generate several proteins, the variation between the cells exists. The study of all these in detail is through a branch of science called genomics.
Genomics is a branch in biology that targets the function, structure, editing, and mapping of the genome. An organismâ€™s entire DNA and of all its genes are known as the genome. This is different from genetics as genetics deals with individual genes along with their inheritance in an organism. Genomics also deals with the analysis and sequencing of the gene through high throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatics to analyze the structure and functions of the genome. In order to promote knowledge of even the multifaceted biological structures, like the brain, developments in genomics triggered a revolution in discovery-based on science and systems biology. The field also involves studies of the effect of one single gene on more than a single trait (pleiotropy), hybrid vigor effect (heterosis), and the impact of one gene on other genes (epistasis) along with other correlations inside the genome among alleles and loci.
History of gene functions and genomics:
The word genome is derived from the German word Genom by H Winkler. However, the word genomics was first coined by Tom Roderick. Following the discovery of the helical structure of DNA and the publication of its structure in 1953 and the release of the Amino acid sequence present in insulin by Fred Sanger in 1955 took place. The nucleic acid sequencing is a chief focus of former molecular biologists. The first nucleic acid sequence ever identified is the ribonucleotide sequence having alanine transfer RNA (ribonucleic acid) was published by Robert W. Holley and colleagues in 1964. Marshall Nirenberg and Philip Leder discovered the triplet codon existence of the genetic code to expand this research and were able to identify the sequences in their studies of 54 out of 64 codons. In1972, Walter Fiers and his team at the University of Ghent’s Molecular Biology Laboratory (Ghent, Belgium) were the first to determine a gene sequence: the gene for the coat protein Bacteriophage MS2. Types of genomics study- Molecular mechanisms and the interplay of the environmental factors with genetics in disease. Several branches of genomics include:
Functional genomics is a branch of Molecular Biology that aims to explain roles and relationships between genes and proteins. The huge data produced by genomics and transcriptomics ventures make use of functional genomics including RNA sequencing and genome sequencing. By comparing with the static aspects of knowledge about Genomics like DNA sequences or structures, functional genomics emphasizes dynamic facets including gene expression and its modulation and protein-protein interactions. The approach to these questions is a key feature of functional genomics research, usually, that involves high-throughput approaches instead of a more conventional “gene-by-gene” approach.
Techniques and applications of functional genomics:
It is important to first define the mechanism for better understanding functional genomics. Graur and his co-workers describe the gene function in two different ways in their paper namely “Selected effect” and “Causal Role” respectively. The function “Selected Effect” focuses on the function whereby a phenotype (DNA, RNA, protein) is chosen. The function ‘Causal role’ speaks about the function for which a phenotype is enough and required. In general, functional genomics examines the function concept. The term functional genomics refers to various technical approaches to learning the genes and proteins of an organism, such as the “cellular, biochemical, and/or physiological properties of all the gene product” although some researchers include their description of nongenic elements study. Functional genomics promises to produce and synthesize genomic and proteomic information through an understanding of the organism’s complex properties. Equated to studies of single genes, this may theoretically offer a more comprehensive image as to how the genome determines function. The convergence of functional genomics data is also an aspect of strategies to systems biology.
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