Water splitting reaction:
The water-splitting reaction that takes place during photosynthesis is known as photolysis. This reaction uses light energy to split the hydrogen atoms from the hydrogen atom. This step takes place continuously in the plant and is activated whenever it needs energy. The reaction happens in an enzyme that is present in the chloroplast.
The enzyme that carries out this reaction is known as photosystem II. This is a multiunit enzyme that is made up of many molecules like chlorophyll a, plastoquinone, heme, beta carotene, and many others. It is embedded in the thylakoid membrane. The thylakoid is a molecule that is present in the chloroplast. It is present in a stacked form. This reaction uses a complex known as the OEC or oxygen-evolving complex in order to produce oxygen from the water. The OEC is made up of calcium, manganese, and chloride ions.
The bond between the oxygen and the two hydrogen atoms breaks. Due to the fact that the valency of hydrogen is 1, it can only form one bond with oxygen. Thus, when the bond breaks, 2 electrons are produced. Both of these electrons are used to give energy to the Calvin cycle.
Functions and Significance:
The electrons are used to generate ATP and NADH. Both of these molecules act as carriers that help the Calvin cycle to get the energy it needs. NADH gets converted into NAD+ and ATP breaks one of its bonds and becomes ADP during this cycle. After this happens they go back to the photosystem II complex and they get converted into their reduced form once again. In this way, these two molecules act as electron vehicles between the two cycles. The Calvin cycle is crucial in the body that helps the plant to get a food source. This reaction is also very useful because water is an abundant resource and so is solar energy. Thus when animals eat plants, they get these sugars that are stored in them. That is how they get energy.
One byproduct that is generated during the splitting of water is oxygen. Oxygen is a waste product for plants and they donâ€™t need to use it. Thus they release it into the air. The oxygen that plants produce is used by nearly all of the animals on the earth. It is one of the essential gases that is needed for survival. We use oxygen to generate energy in our bodies. It helps us to get the resources we need to carry out our tasks.
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