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This chapter focuses on building a collaborative client-worker relationship.
Â·Â Expanding on collaborative partnerships and goal formationÂ . (2016). In Blundo, R. G., & Simon, J. K.Â Â Solution-focused case management. Springer Publishing Company.
This next chapter expands upon developing the client-worker relationship by addressing future goals and developing steps to realize that future.
Â·Â Solution-Focused Planning and AssessmentÂ . (2016). In Blundo, R. G., & Simon, J. K.Â Â Solution-focused case management. Springer Publishing Company.
This article discusses the importance of writing your goals down using the SMART Goals strategy.
Â· Crowell, N. (2016, February 5).Â Â How goal SMARTS will make you a more successful social workerÂ .Â Â Social worker success.
Service Delivery Planning
Â· Chapter Eight addresses Social Work Case Management Standard 6, Service Planning, Implementation, and Monitoring.
Â· Chapter Eight addresses Human Serviceâ€“Certified Board Practitioner Competency 4, Case Management.
I work with school-age children, and most of these children have behavior problems. During the planning for them, we use a central file for all records. All of our records are electronic, so everything is on the computer. For every visit, we have to do a case management progress note, which is just kind of an outline. It has subjective findings of what you and the client are working on and what comes out of that. It has objective findings where I might record the childâ€™s appearance and affect. There is also an assessment part; I just record my ideas and opinions about whatâ€™s going on. In that section I have to talk about our SNAP goals, which refers to the clientâ€™s strengths, needs, abilities, and preferences, and thatâ€™s in every single assessment.
From Katie Ferrell, 2012, text from unpublished interview. Used with permissionÂ .
In this chapter we focus on the planning of service delivery. The needs of the client are complex, and planning provides the foundation for the case management process. For each section of the chapter, you should be able to accomplish the objectives listed here.
Revisiting the Assessment Phase
Â· List the two areas of concern that are addressed when reviewing the problem.
Â· Describe the ways in which the continued assessment can change over time.
Developing a Plan for Services
Â· Identify the parts of a plan.
Â· Write a plan.
Â· See first-hand how a plan can change during the case management process.
Â· See how a client (Sharon Bello) and a case manager (Alma Grady) work together to develop a plan for services.
Â· Learn how goals and objectives are formulated.
Â· Locate available services.
Â· Create an information and referral system.
Gathering Additional Information
Â· Compare interviewing and testing as data collection methods.
Â· Identify the types of interviews.
Â· Show how sources of error can influence an interview.
Â· Illustrate the role of testing in case management.
Â· DefineÂ test.
Â· Categorize a test.
Â· Identify sources of information about tests and the information that each provides.
Â· Learn about how to prepare clients for testing.
Â· Analyze the factors to be considered when selecting, administering, and interpreting a test.
Â·Â At this point in the process, the agency has determined that the applicant meets the eligibility criteria and the services are appropriate, so the person can now receive services. At the family services agency, the applicant becomes aÂ Â consumer, but the welfare-to-work program uses the termÂ Â client. An agency in South Dakota that serves adults with developmental disabilities calls the service recipientsÂ Â individuals,Â explaining that â€œthey are not clients or consumers anymore. They are just people.â€ Other agencies or organizations use the termÂ Â customer. The change in status from applicant to recipient of services marks the move into the second phase of case management: planning service delivery.
Â·Â Although some agencies call the individuals they work with â€œclients,â€ we use the term â€œconsumers.â€ We changed our language when we began to evaluate our services. These individuals actually come here for the services we provide. In other words, they actually â€œbuyâ€ our services. They could go elsewhere. Consumers choose agencies for a variety of reasons; we hope they see this agency as a welcoming and friendly place.
Â·Â â€”Case manager, family services, New York, New York
Â·Â We use the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory for each of our new clients who come to live with us. We call our clients â€œresidents.â€ This inventory has 160 items. It is a questionnaire that addresses a range of issues, including personality patterns, expressed concerns, and clinical syndromes. First, we score the questionnaire, and then we identify issues of concern from the question and from the resident. Finally, the resident and the case manager together make a treatment plan that addresses the areas of concern.
Â·Â â€”Case and intake worker, emergency shelter, St. Louis, Missouri
Â·Â When I first meet clients during the interview, I help them understand what will happen if they join our program. We have some basic criteria, such as having a 9.5 in math and a 10.0 in reading on the TABE test. Plus, they have to be able to type 30 words per minute and have a minimum understanding of computers. If they join the program, they must attend classes on a regular basis. They may only miss 8 days within a 6-month period. That is difficult for some of them.
Â·Â â€”Case manager, welfare-to-work and case management services, Knoxville, Tennessee
Â·Â The quotes that introduce this chapter identify some of the activities that occur during this phase. At the emergency shelter in St. Louis, Missouri, client participation is important in planning. In fact, clients determine the goals. Client interests and expectations and use of test data are shared at the welfare-to-work program in Knoxville, Tennessee. One case manager in New York City summarizes this phase of case management: â€œYou just have to read through the information several times and say,Â â€˜What stands out here? What issues should I pay attention to?â€™ Then you say, â€˜Well, if these are the problems my clients and I think are important, what do we do about them?â€™.â€
Â· A caseworker at a school for the deaf also notes the importance of gathering information to see the big picture.
Â· One skill that I need in this job is to be able to talk with the different professionals, family, and friends of the children I work with. So many people have to be involved to address such complex problems. I search and search for all of the little pieces. But the job is still not done. I need to step back and see the big picture. This is the key to case management. Without a case manager or someone taking the case management approach, no one has the big picture.
Â· This chapter explores the planning phase of case management, when the helper and the client together determine the steps necessary to reach the desired goal. The activities involved in this phase include reviewing and continuing to assess the problem, developing a plan, using an information system, and gathering additional information. Running through our discussion in this chapter are two critical components of the case management processâ€”client participation and documentation.
8-1aRevisiting the Assessment Phase
The next phase of case management begins with a review of the problems and strengths identified during the assessment phase. Before moving ahead with the process, the case manager will need to know if the problem has changed, if the same client resources are available, and if any shift in agency priorities has occurred. To complete the review quickly before moving into a planning mode, the case manager and the client examine two aspects of a case.
The first area of concern involves a review of the relevant facts regarding the problem. At this point, the case manager and the client revisit the identification of the problem. The initial question that the helper asks can help determine whether the problem still exists. Working with people requires an element of flexibility; clientsâ€™ lives change, just as ours do. Thus, the problem may have changed in some way: the client may have a different perspective on it; the participants may be different; or assistance may no longer be needed, appropriate, or wanted. Once the case manager has confirmed that the problem still exists and has documented any changes that have occurred, the problem itself is revisited. Is the problem an unmet need, such as housing or financial assistance, or is it stress that limits the clientâ€™s coping abilities or causes interpersonal difficulties? Is the problem a combination of several factors? This activity is best accomplished by talking with the client and reviewing his or her file. The client is still considered the primary source of information and a critical partner in the case management process. We return to Sharon Bello to illustrate reviewing the previous assessment.
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