86 Exploring the European Past: Texts and Images Sample Module 87
remains of architecture from the past. For convenience, in Exploring the
European Past, primary texts (Primary Source Section) have been divided
from primary images (Visual Source Section), but you should understand
that both sections are presenting you with the raw materials, or primary
sources, that historians use to piece together the past. Much of what has
been said about the primary sources, especially the nonnarrative sources,
might also apply to the visual sources. Unfortunately, visual sources can
be more difficult than textual sources to use and analyze.
This point brings us to archaeology and archaeological evidence,
which provide an important class of nonliterary sources. Excavation contributes more and more evidence of this kind every year. Nonetheless
archeological sources (and graphic sources in general) are especially difficult to interpret. We can tell that the Parthenon is a great work of art, but
what does it tell us about ancient Athens? What do we learn from the
remains of a small rural cottage?
The visual sources, however; have the advantage of being able to “speak
to us” directly, often across the centuries. Thus, although it its difficult to
“interpret” the Parthenon, it is easy to look at a picture of the building and
imagine what an ancient Greek might have thought and felt when he or she
looked at that same structure 2,500 years ago. Likewise recruiting posters
for World War II can “speak to us” directly, as can paintings or pictures of
nineteenth-century sweatshops. Visual sources, too, can lie or deceive, but
they have the advantage of allowing even more direct access to the world of
the past, and we should take advantage of them.
CONCLUSION
As you approach these three kinds of sources in the Exploring the
European Past modules, try to use the information and questions provided
in the introductory headers to each source to guide your reading and
understanding of the passages that have been selected. Then use the questions at the end of the sections to help compile, organize, and assess your
understanding of how all the individual sources fit together to give you a
better view of the larger picture. Sometimes it might be necessary to
reread a particular passage in order to search for specific information to
help answer these questions. This is normal and to be expected—it is,
in fact, what professional historians do.
Hopefully, the information provided for you here in the introduction
will make your experience with Exploring the European Past a more
enjoyable and informative one. And hopefully, Exploring the European
Past will add to your experience in the survey of Western Civilization.
The Age of Exploration and Conquest
by Jeremy Baskes
INTRODUCTION
The arrival of Columbus in the New World (America) marks the
beginning of the modem era. For millennia, the populations of the
Western Hemisphere developed in isolation from the people of the
Old World, Africa, Asia, and Europe. Columbus initiated a
process of American exploration, conquest, and colonization that
would ultimately bring the territory and people of the Americas
under the control of European nations.
Columbus’s famous voyage was the culmination of more than
a century of Atlantic exploration. Technological advances in shipping and navigation in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries
positioned pilots sailing under the Spanish and especially
Portuguese flags to increasingly explore the Atlantic islands and
the coast of Africa. Europeans were particularly eager to discover
a sea route to India and the East. Sailing for Portugal, Bartolomeu
Dias sailed around the tip of Africa in 1488 and Vasco da Gama
reached India in 1497. In 1492 Columbus set sail under the
Spanish flag to discover a western route to Asia, but instead he
encountered the New World.
In the same year that Columbus departed Spain, Spaniards
enjoyed victory at Granada, ending the centuries-old Catholic crusade to “reconquer” the Iberian Peninsula from the Moors,
Muslims originally from North Africa who, in the year 711 a.d.,
invaded, conquered, and occupied much of the peninsula. The
legacy of the Reconquista included a Spanish people accustomed
to waging war for Catholicism and the accumulation of wealth,
two factors that strongly influenced the subsequent conquest of
America.
The era of conquest began in 1492. Over the next twenty-five
years, Spaniards explored the Caribbean, the Central American
Isthmus, and the coasts of Mexico and South America. The largest
Spanish settlements were on the islands of Española (Hispaniola)
and Cuba. At the same time Portugal staked its claim to Brazil
and began trading with Brazil’s coastal inhabitants.
The first great conquest began in 1519. In February of that year,
Hernán Cortés and some six hundred men departed Cuba and
Sample Module 89
88 Exploring the European Past: Texts and Images
sailed along the coast of Mexico, finally arriving at the site where
Cortes founded the first Spanish village in Mexico, la Villa Rica
de la Vera Cruz. It was here that the Spaniards first encountered
representatives of the great Aztec empire, which in the sixteenth
century dominated large portions of Mesoamerica, a region that
had been inhabited by advanced cultures for thousands of years.
Messengers sent by die Aztec emperor Montezuma (Moteucçoma)
greeted the Spaniards, presented them gifts, and reported to the
great emperor the mysterious things that they had observed. Over
the following two years Cortês and his men built alliances with
Aztec enemies, and together they waged war against the Aztecs. In
August 1521, Cuauhtemoc, the last Aztec emperor, surrendered
the capital of Tenochtitlán, located at the site of modem Mexico
City. One of the two centers of high civilization in the Americas
had been conquered.
From Central Mexico, the Spanish conquistadors expanded
south, conquering Yucatán and Central America. In late 1531
Francisco Pizarro and some two hundred men sailed south from
Panama landing on the coast of Peru. By November 1533 Pizarro
and his men had seized Cuzco, the capital of the Inca empire. The
second center of advanced American civilization had fallen to the
Spanish conquistadors.
The conquests of Mexico and Peru brought great fortune to the
conquerors and initiated major efforts on the part of the Catholic
Church to convert the millions of Indians now claimed by the
Spanish Crown. These successes also sparked explorers to search
for additional Amerindian kingdoms capable of producing equal
wealth. Despite Herculean efforts, there were no more discoveries.
The era of the great conquests was over by the 1530s.
This module examines the process and consequences of
European exploration, expansion, and conquest of the New World.
Columbus’s “discovery” of America was the most important of
several centuries of European exploration. Fabulous quantities of
wealth were obtained from America as Spaniards plundered the
riches of the existing civilizations and initiated the search for and
extraction of precious metals. Many other products also benefited
the European conquerors. In addition, large numbers of migrants,
both free Europeans and enslaved Africans, arrived in America to
alter the social and demographic landscape. Native Americans suecumbed to diseases or were exposed to the harsh institutions of
European colonialism. In these and many other ways, 1492 and its
aftermath changed the course of history, for good or for bad, for
people of both the old and the new worlds. In the sections that follow, we will explore the motivations of the European explorer/conquerors as well as the multifaceted repercussions of their actions.
Primary Sources
Introduction
The fifteenth- and sixteenth-century sources selected for this module provide interesting insight into the perspectives and motivations, both different and similar, of the Europeans and Americans.
Columbus provides a window into the ambitions and biases of a
European explorer. The Requirimiento reveals much about the
world view of the Spaniards. The different telling of the first
encounter between Spaniards and Aztecs suggests much about the
views and beliefs of these two peoples. Finally, the “Order Given
to Twelve Franciscans” provides alternative interpretations of
Spanish objectives. In reading these passages, consider the goals
and biases of the authors; what can be learned about their motivations or values? Pay close attention to the specific language used
as this can reveal much about the authors’ perspectives
Letter from Christopher Columbus to King Ferdinand of Spain,
describing his first voyage to America
On 3 August 1492, Christopher Columbus set sail from the small
village of Palos, Spain on the journey that would take him to
America. Columbus, born in Genoa, Italy, first approached the
Portuguese Crown as early as 1484 with his idea to seek a westward route to “the East, ” the rich trading areas of China and
India. This proposal was rejected by the Portuguese monarchy,
which was more interested in establishing an Eastern sea route by
sailing around the southern cape of Afi-ica, a feat that would be
accomplished by Bartolomeu Dias in 1488. Columbus made a
total of four voyages to America, and while he never succeeded in
sailing west to Asia, he died in 1506 still insisting, but perhaps no
longer believing, that the islands that he had encountered, the
90 Exploring the European Past: Texts and Images Sample Module >i
Bahamas, Cuba, Española, and. others, were off the Asian coast.
The following selection comes from a letter written by Columbus
to King Ferdinand of Spain during the return trip from his first
voyage to America. Like, many explorers and conquerors,
Columbus had been awarded, a capitulación from the Spanish
monarchy, essentially a contract that granted him a share of any
spoils that his venture might generate. Undoubtedly, the desire for
wealth influenced the tone of Columbus ’s letter to Ferdinand.
Excerpted from Cecil Jane, editor and translator, The Four
Voyages of Columbus (New York, 1988), 2-18, even pages only.
SIR, As I know that you will be pleased at the great victory with
which Our Lord has crowned my voyage, I write this to you, from
which you will learn how in thirty-three days, I passed from the
Canary Islands to the Indies with the fleet which the most illustrious king and queen, our sovereigns, gave to me. And there I found
very many islands filled with people innumerable, and of them all
I have taken possession for their highnesses, by proclamation
made and with the royal standard unfurled, and no opposition was
offered to me. To the first island which I found, I gave the name
San Salvador, in remembrance of the Divine Majesty, Who has
marvellously bestowed all this; the Indians call it ‘Guanahani’. To
the second, I gave the name Isla de Santa Maria de Concepción’,
to the third, Fernandina’, to the fourth, Isabella’, to the fifth, Isla
Juana, and so to each one I gave a new name.
When I reached Juana, I followed its coast to the westward. .. .
And since there were neither towns nor villages on the seashore,
but only small hamlets, with the people of which I could not have
speech, because they all fled immediately, I went forward on the
same course, thinking that I should not fail to find great cities and
towns…. 1 sent two men inland to leam if there were a king or
great cities. They travelled three days’journey and found an infinity of small hamlets and people without number, but nothing of
importance. For this reason, they returned ….
… I saw another island, distant eighteen leagues from the former, to the east, to which I at once gave the name ‘Española’.. ..
This island and all the others are very fertile to a limitless degree,
and this island is extremely so. In it there are many harbours on
the coast of the sea, beyond comparison with others which I know
in Christendom, and many rivers, good and large, which is marvellous. Its lands are high, and there are in it very many sierras
and very lofty mountains, beyond comparison with the island of
Teneriffe. All are most beautiful, of a thousand shapes, and all are
accessible and filled with trees of a thousand kinds and tall, and
they seem to touch the sky. And I am told that they never lose
their foliage, as I can understand, for I saw them as green and as
lovely as they are in Spain hi May, and some of them were flowering, some bearing fruit, and some in another stage, according to
their nature. And the nightingale was singing and other birds of a
thousand kinds in the month of November there where I went.
There are six or eight kinds of palm, which are a wonder to
behold on account of th eir beautiful variety, but so arc the other
trees and fruits and plants. In it arc marvellous pine groves, and
there are very large tracts of cultivatable lands, and there is honey,
and there are birds of many kinds and fruits in great diversity. In
the interior are mines of metals, and the population is without
number. Española is a marvel.
The sierras and mountains, the plains and arable lands and
pastures, are so lovely and rich for planting and sowing, for
breeding cattle of every kind, for building towns and villages.
The harbours of the sea here are such as cannot be believed to
exist unless they have been seen, and so with the rivers, many
and great, and good waters, the majority of which contain gold.
In the trees and fruits and plants, there is a great difference from
those of Juana. In this island, there are many spices and great
mines of gold and of other metals.
90 Exploring the European Past: Texts and Images Sample Module 91
Bahamas, Cuba, Española, and others, were off the Asian coast.
The following selection comes from a letter written by Columbus
to King Ferdinand of Spain during the return trip from his first
voyage to America. Like many explorers and conquerors,
Columbus had been awarded, a capitulación from the Spanish
monarchy, essentially a contract that granted him a share of any
spoils that his venture might generate. Undoubtedly, the desire for
wealth influenced the tone of Columbus ’s letter to Ferdinand.
Excerpted from Cecil Jane, editor and translator, The Four
Voyages of Columbus (New York, 1988), 2—18, even pages only.
SIR, As I know that you will be pleased at the great victory with
which Our Lord has crowned my voyage, I write this to you, from
which you will leam how in thirty-three days, I passed from the
Canary Islands to the Indies with the fleet which the most illustrious king and queen, our sovereigns, gave to me. And. there I found
very many islands filled with people innumerable, and of them all
I have taken possession for their highnesses, by proclamation
made and with the royal standard unfurled, and no opposition was
offered to me. To the first island which I found, I gave the name
San Salvador, in remembrance of the Divine Majesty, Who has
marvellously bestowed all this; the Indians call it ‘Guanahani’. To
the second, I gave the name Isla de Santa Maria de Concepción’,
to the third, Fernandina’, to the fourth, Isabella’, to the fifth, Isla
Juana, and so to each one I gave a new name.
When I reached Juana, I followed its coast to the westward. …
And since there were neither towns nor villages on the seashore,
but only small hamlets, with the people of which I could not have
speech, because they all fled immediately, I went forward on the
same course, thinking that I should not fail to find great cities and
towns. … I sent two men inland to leam if there were a king or
great cities. They travelled three days’journey and found an infinity of small hamlets and people without number, but nothing of
importance. For this reason, they returned ….
… 1 saw another island, distant eighteen leagues from the former, to the east, to which I at once gave the name ‘Española’… .
This island and all the others are very fertile to a limitless degree,
and this island is extremely so. In it there are many harbours on
the coast of the sea, beyond comparison with others which I know
in Christendom, and many rivers, good and large, which is marvellous. Its lands are high, and there are in it very many sierras
and very lofty mountains, beyond comparison with the island of
Teneriffe. All are most beautiful, of a thousand shapes, and all are
accessible and filled with trees of a thousand kinds and tall, and
they seem to touch the sky. And I am told that they never lose
their foliage, as I can understand, for I saw them as green and as
lovely as they are in Spain in May, and some of them were flowering, some bearing fruit, and some in another stage, according to
their nature. And the nightingale was singing and other birds of a
thousand kinds in the month of November there where I went.
There are six or eight kinds of palm, which are a wonder to
behold on account of their beautiful variety, but so are the other
trees and fruits and plants. In it are marvellous pine groves, and
there are very large tracts of cultivatable lands, and there is honey,
and there are birds of many kinds and fruits in great diversity. In
the interior are mines of metals, and the population is without
number. Española is a marvel.
The sierras and mountains, the plains and arable lands and
pastures, are so lovely and rich for planting and sowing, for
breeding cattle of every kind, for building towns and villages.
The harbours of the sea here are such as cannot be believed to
exist unless they have been seen, and so with the rivers, many
and great, and good waters, the majority of which contain gold.
In the trees and fruits and plants, there is a great difference from
those of Juana. In this island, there are many spices and great
mines of gold and of other metals.
92 Exploring rhe European Past: Texts and Images Sample Module 93
The people of this island, and of all the other islands which I
have found and of which I have information, all go naked, men
and women, as their mothers bore them, although some women
cover a single place with the leaf of a plant or with a net of cotton
which they make for the purpose. They have no iron or steel or
weapons, nor are they fitted to use them, not because they are not
well built men and of handsome stature, but because they are very
marvellously timorous. They have no other arms than weapons
made of canes, cut in seeding time, to the ends of which they fix a
small sharpened stick. And they do not dare to make use of these,
for many times it has happened that I have sent ashore two or
three men to some town to have speech, and countless people have
come out to them, and as soon as they have seen my men
approaching they have fled, even a father not waiting for his son.
And this, not because ill has been done to anyone; on the contrary,
at every point where I have been and have been able to have
speech, I have given to them of all that I had, such as cloth and
many other things, without receiving anything for it; but so they
are, incurably timid. It is true that, after they have been reassured
and have lost their fear, they are so guileless and so generous with
all they possess, that no one would believe it who has not seen it.
They never refuse anything which they possess, if it be asked of
them; on the contrary, they invite anyone to share it, and display
as much love as if they would give their hearts, and whether the
thing be of value or whether it be of small price, at once with
whatever trifle of whatever kind it may be that is given to them,
with that they are content. I forbade that they should be given
things so worthless as fragments of broken crockery and scraps of
broken glass, and ends of straps, although when they were able to
get them, they fancied that they possessed the best jewel in the
world.. . . And I gave a thousand handsome good things, which I
had brought, in order that they might conceive affection, and more
than that, might become Christians and be inclined to the love and
service of their highnesses and of the whole Castilian nation, and
strive to aid us and to give us of the things which they have in
abundance and which are necessary to us. And they do not know
any creed and are not idolaters; only they all believe that power
and good are in the heavens, and they are very firmly convinced
that I, with these ships and men, came from the heavens, and in
this belief they everywhere received me, after they had overcome
their fear. And this does not come because they are ignorant; on
the contrary, they are of a very acute intelligence and are men
who navigate all those seas, so that it is amazing how good an
account they give of everything, but Ä°t is because they have never
seen people clothed or ships of such a kind.. . .
In all these islands, I saw no great diversity in the appearance
of the people or in their manners and language. On the contrary,
they all understand one another, which is a very curious thing,
on account of which I hope that their highnesses will determine
upon their conversion to our holy faith, towards which they are
very inclined. . . .
In all these islands, it seems to me that all men are content
with one woman, and to their chief or king they give as many as
twenty. It appears to me that the women work more than the men.
And I have not been able to learn if they hold private property;
what seemed to me to appear was that, in that which one had, all
took a share, especially of eatable things. …
In another island, which they assure me is larger than
Española, the people have no hair. In it, there is gold incalculable, and from it and from the other islands, I bring with me
Indians as evidence.
In conclusion, to speak only of that which has been accomplished on this voyage, which was so hasty, their highnesses can
see that I will give them as much gold as they may need, if their
highnesses will render me very slight assistance; moreover, spice
and cotton, as much as their highnesses shall command; and mastic, as much as they shall order to be shipped and which, up to
now, has been found only in Greece, in the island of Chios, and
the Seignory sells it for what it pleases; and aloe wood, as much
as they shall order to be shipped, and slaves, as many as they
shall order to be shipped and who will be from the idolaters. And
I believe that I have found rhubarb and cinnamon, and I shall find
a thousand other things of value….
This is enough .. . and the eternal God, our Lord, Who gives
to all those who walk in His way triumph over things which
appear to be impossible, and this was notably one; for, although
men have talked or have written of these lands, all was conjectural, without suggestion of ocular evidence, but amounted only to
94 Exploring the European Past: Texts and Images
Sample Module 95
tliis, that those who heard for the most part listened and judged it
to be rather a fable than as having any vestige of truth. So that,
since Our Redeemer has given this victory to our most illustrious
king and queen, and to their renowned kingdoms, in so great a
matter, for this all Christendom ought to feel delight and make
great feasts and give solemn thanks to the Holy Trinity with many
solemn prayers for the great exaltation which they shall have, in.
the turning of so many peoples to our holy faith, and afterwards
for temporal benefits, for not only Spain but all Christians will
have hence refreshment and gain.
This, in accordance with that which has been accomplished,
thus briefly.
Done in the caravel, off the Canary Islands, on the fifteenth of
February, in the year one thousand four hundred and ninety-three.
At your orders El Almirante.
[Columbus]
The Requirimiento: A Declaration of Just War
In 1493, several months after Columbus returned from his first
voyage to America, Pope Alexander VI, a Spaniard by birth,
issued a papal decree dividing the world between Spain and
Portugal. To Spain the Pope granted all lands to be discovered
west of a line drawn 100 leagues to the west of the Azores.
Portugal received, all newly discovered lands to the east of this
demarcation. In the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas, Spain and
Portugal renegotiated the line’s position, moving it 270 leagues
further to the west. With the Pope ’s blessing, Spain set forth to
bring the newly encountered territories and people under Spanish
control. In preparation, Spanish theologians produced an infamous document known as the Requirimiento (Requirement or
Requisition). Attributed to the jurist Juan López de Palacios
Rubios, the Requirimiento was to be read aloud to the
Amerindians prior to the Spaniards’ declaration of war.
Excerpted from Sir Arthur Helps, The Spanish Conquest in
America and Its Relation to the History of Slavery’ and to the
Government of Colonies, M. Oppenhiem, ed. (London: 1900),
1:264—67.
On the part of the King, Don Ferdinand, and of Doha Juana, his
daughter, Queen of Castile and Leon, subduers of the barbarous
nations, we their servants notify and make known to you, as best
we can, that the Lord our God, Living and Eternal, created the
Heaven and the Earth, and one man and one woman, of whom
you and we, and all the men of the world, were and are descendants, and all those who come after us. But on account of the
multitude which has sprung from this man and woman in the five
thousand years since the world was created, it was necessary that


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