The word â€œempiricismâ€ has a dual etymology. The first one comes from the Greek word that translates to â€œexperientia,â€ meaning experience. The second one comes from Greek and Roman usage of the word â€œempiric,â€ which is used in reference to a physician using the skills one derives from their practical experience rather than from theory.
Science uses the empirical approach, which started gaining popularity in the 17th and 18th centuries. The idea that knowledge should be obtained empirically, that is, through experience paved the way for methods of inquiry that used experiments and careful observation to collect facts and evidence.
The scientific inquiry is done at two levels:
Theory and the foundation of a hypothesis
Use real empirical methods for inquiry â€“ experiments, objective observations, replication, and practicing control in experiments
Psychology was a little late in its employment of scientific methods; however, efforts have been made which will be discussed in detail below.
While empiricism gained immense popularity in other scientific fields such as physics, chemistry and others, the field of psychology as a science had taken a backseat until Rene Descartes wrote about the topic of consciousness, which he said, set humans apart from other animals. Following his writings were the other influential works of Spinzoa and Leibnitz; however, there is no evidence of the existence of unified, scientific psychology during these times. Psychology, as a scientific field, took long to take shape since understanding thoughts, feelings, and behavior was not easy, and this led to the ignorance of the field in the 16th century. Thus, how did the modern experimental psychology come into being? Well, it has its roots in Aristotleâ€™s request for scientific investigation, and it started to take place toward the late 19th century.
It all began when Wilhelm Wundt developed the first psychology lab in the year 1879. Introspection was used methodologically, and this started the movement about employing scientific methods to investigate the mind and behavior.
Science and Psychology:
In the field of psychology, behaviorism and cognitive psychology were the schools of thoughts that employed empirical methods extensively.
Behaviorists employed the empirical methods extensively, with laboratory experiments and rejection of any forces that were not measurable to be the cause of behavior. They came up with simple explanations like shaping, reinforcements, generalization, to explain many of the behaviors that ranged from language acquisition to the development of morals. They were steadfast in their beliefs in the principles of determinism, which they used to come up with consistent predictions. They used these predictions to control the behavior of both animals and human beings (in therapy).
Later on, cognitive psychologists also adopted careful scientific- and a laboratory-based approach as well. They adopted empirical approaches to study mental processes that are unobservable, unlike the behaviorists. They used experiments and precise models to help confirm or refute their theories about behavior.
Regardless of the above, a complete control and prediction and full understanding in the field of psychology is impossible because of the various forces that are in play on even the simplest of behaviors. These forces include mental, biological, and environmental forces.
Some other psychologists argue that psychology should not be a science. The major proponents of this view are Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow who adopted the humanistic approach, which places importance on private, subjective, and conscious experiences, thereby rejecting the science. This is the reason they did not place much value on scientific psychology, especially in their uses of laboratories to investigate both animal and human behavior. Humanistic approach views behavior through the eyes of person who is involved in the behavior. It deliberately stays away from a scientific viewpoint, and instead, emphasizes freewill in order to understand behavior. Humanistic psychologists also tend to view scientific approaches as being â€œdehumanizing.â€
Another major school of psychology that receives flak from the scientific community is the Freudian theory of psychoanalysis. Scholars argue that psychoanalysis has an explanatory power; however, it fails in terms of prediction. It is also accused of being unfalsifiable. However, some other scholars like Kline argue otherwise. He says that Freudian theories can be broken down into hypotheses that can be tested scientifically.
Limitations to Scientific Psychology:
Despite a major movement involved in psychology being a science, there is some doubt that exists about psychology ever really being a science.
Science, in general, works on the basis of general laws that are applicable to everyone. In doing so, it takes a deterministic and a reductionist approach. However, this does not exactly apply to psychology, in that, the laws are not generalizable because psychology does not exist in a social vacuum. That is, behavior tends to change over a period of time, and it is different under different circumstances, and not everyone exhibits the same behavior in the same situation. There are various forces, mental, biological, social, cultural, and environmental, which act on even the simplest of behaviors.
The next major problem is whether traditional scientific methods really apply to psychology? That is, let one consider the empirical method of experiments. Experiments are eager to establish that the cause of X is Y. This viewpoint tends to ignore the number of extraneous variables that are interacting in a given situation. Also, in another time and place, one might not be influenced by X at all. There are many forces that are acting upon a person, and all of them cannot be controlled directly.
Objectivity is another major problem in psychology, as it is very difficult to achieve when it comes to studying human behavior. Freud is a major case in point when it comes to this as his theories are often criticized due to lack of objectivity.
Other problems include verification and testability. This is because most of the subject matter in psychology is unobservable (like memory), and therefore, they cannot be measured accurately.
Thus, is one close to understanding what really is science or whether psychology is exactly a science? Perhaps not. But as Slife and Williams concluded, one has to strive for the use of scientific methods and not abandon the search for these unified methods, because, in doing so, one would lose a sense of psychology that has been established. At the same time, one must also strive to develop scientific methods that are most suited to study mind and behavior because those adopted by the natural sciences may not be entirely appropriate for psychology (1995).
Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?
- Plagiarism free papers
- Timely delivery
- Any deadline
- Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
- Subject-relevant academic writer
- Adherence to paper instructions
- Ability to tackle bulk assignments
- Reasonable prices
- 24/7 Customer Support
- Get superb grades consistently
Online Academic Help With Different Subjects
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
What discipline/subjects do you deal in?
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
What if I don’t like the paper?
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
- When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
- We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.
In the event that you don’t like your paper:
- The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
- We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
- Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.
Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
What if the paper is plagiarized?
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
When will I get my paper?
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
Will anyone find out that I used your services?
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
How our Assignment Help Service Works
1. Place an order
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2. Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3. Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4. Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.