Before the birth, primordial oocytes (primordial egg cells) are produced in a vast number. These cells die in a continuous process from the very beginning, due to which at the time of birth, only 2 million are left. The process in which most of these eggs die is called atresia. Since the eggs keep on dying even after the birth, only 40,000 ova are left at the onset of puberty. During this time, a number of these eggs begin to mature every four weeks. Only one (sometimes two or three) ovum out of these matures, and the rest of the ova die. This process continues until the menopause is reached.
This is the time when there is no primordial egg leftâ€”about 400 ova mature, in total. Oogenesis is the process in which eggs are produced in the ovary. Even before birth, oogenesis begins but is not finished until puberty is attained. When an oogonium with a diploid number of chromosomes undergoes mitosis, oogenesis begins. A primary oocyte is a diploid cell. It starts to go through meiosis 1, which is the first cell division of meiosis. The complete meiosis is, however, not achieved. Until puberty, the primary oocyte remains in an immature follicle.
Typically, the process of maturation takes 14 days to complete, and this period is divided into two distinct periodsâ€”as many as 1000 eggs start maturing in the initial phase. In the second phase of development, however, gonadal hormones are required for stimulation with the help of which, further development is stimulated. Hundreds of eggs become mature during each menstrual cycle, but only one egg becomes dominant and attains its full maturity. The remaining mature eggs die and the development of the dominant egg continues. At the beginning of the puberty, one of the follicles and its oocyte begins to mature each month. Meiosis resumes in the primary oocyte which divides and forms a secondary oocyte, along with the polar body, which is a smaller cell. The polar body and the secondary oocyte are both haploid cells. Most of the cytoplasm from the original cell goes in the secondary cell, due to which, the size of the secondary cell is much larger than the polar body. For 48 hours, the egg is capable of getting fertilized, after which, the egg will die, and a new cycle will begin after a week.
Ovulation and Fertilization
After 12-14 days, ovulation occurs when the follicle attains maturity and the secondary oocyte is released as the follicle surrounding it bursts open. Now, the follicle starts to degenerate and is called a corpus luteum. The secondary oocyte after leaving the ovary, enters the fallopian tube and starts its journey to the uterus. While passing through the fallopian tube, if the secondary oocyte gets fertilized by a sperm, the meiosis will get completed and a mature egg will be formed along with another polar body. However, in case of no sperm, the secondary oocyte is not fertilized and as an immature egg, it passes into the uterus where it gets disintegrated.
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