Characteristics of liquid or gases are explained based on forces of attraction between the molecules, known as intermolecular forces. They are of two types:
(a) Cohesive force: Force of attraction between molecules of the same substance is called cohesive force. This property is called cohesion.
(b) Adhesive force: Force of attraction between two molecules of different substances is called adhesive force.
The molecules of the surface of the water are acted upon by an unbalanced net force. The force is cohesive and acts in a downward direction. So we can say that molecules lying in the surface film are experience an unbalanced downward force which results in the molecules being pulled inside the liquid.
Since the molecules are pulled inside rather than being on the surface, the total number of molecules on the surface film reduces significantly. The reduction causes the surface film to shrink to a point where no further shrinking is possible (certain molecules try to move to the interior of liquid and they have maximum potential energy at the surface) and the liquid surface remains under tension causing the surface to become horizontal. Molecules stay on the surface to provide stability. We can imagine the surface to behave like a stretched surface of a rubber balloon or like a stretched elastic membrane. It remains under tension and is called surface tension. The molecules on the surface experience a force tangential to the liquid surface. Also, the force acts perpendicular to the molecules.
We understand that if we want to increase the area at the surface, we need more molecules at the surface. So by doing work against the inward force molecules from the interior must be brought to the surface. With an increase in area, potential energy increases (which is the work done and stored in the form of potential energy).
But liquids tend to have minimum potential energy and they do this by having reduced surface area. To achieve a reduced area, molecules move to the interior of liquid.
Surface tension (T) is represented by the formula, F/l where l is the length of line on the surface of the water on which perpendicular force acts. Unit of T in S.I. units are N/m.
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