The relationship between a host and its symbiont is mutual, where both the organisms are benefitted and none of the organisms are harmed. This relationship can be either for a short period of time, or it can be long term(for a larger period of time). For instance, mutualism is exhibited between ant and Acacia trees. Ants feed on the nectar and live in these trees. Therefore, in this case, the host is the tree and the ant is the mutualist. Acacia trees have huge holes in their barks, and the yellow lumps on their leaves serve as a home as well as food for the ants. In return, the ants favor the tree by attacking the insects and protecting it from the random grazing of animals.
Resourceâ€“Resource Relationship in Mutualism
Mutualism is entirely dependent on the resources that each organism possesses. It is like a barter system, where there is an exchange of resources that takes place. One good example of a resourceâ€“resource relationship is mycorrhiza. The plant provides carbohydrates and nutrients to the fungi. In return, these fungi provide phosphate and nitrogenous compounds for the growth of the plants. Another example is rhizobium, which is a bacterium present in the soil and roots of leguminous plants. They help in fixing nitrogen for the plants, and in return, the plants give nutrients and energy to them. In almost all populations of the world, organisms remain mutualistic for one source or the other. This forms the basis of the ecosystem. The population of the two species interacts with each other. The results of this interaction can be useful or harmful or neutral. The relationship that gives only benefits is named mutualism. Examples: Mutualism exists between the smallest of the organisms as well. Interaction between fungi and algae involves the exchange of nutrients for survival. Even plants depend upon animals. Plants depend upon pollination, and animals graze upon plants for food like nectar and fruits. Mutualism is a way of co-evolution.
Serviceâ€“Resource Relationship in Mutualism
The red-billed oxpecker feeds on the ticks present on the skin coat of impala. This is a type of service relationship. There are four types of serviceâ€“resource relationship, namely pollination, cleaning, symbiosis, and zoochory. In pollination, the plant provides the animals with pollen and nectar. In return, pollen dispersion is carried out by animals for the plantâ€™s propagation. In symbiosis, phagophiles feed on ectoparasites. They provide anti-pest services and cleaning. Similarly, Elacatinus and Gobiosoma feed on parasites on the external coat of the animals to which they attach, thereby cleaning them. In zoochory, trees and plants are dependent upon animals for seed dispersal. This mechanism resembles pollination. Fleshy fruits are consumed by animals and they disperse the seeds elsewhere. Another example is the ants protecting aphids from insects like ladybugs. The aphids in return provide honeydew for the ants as food.
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