Honey bees of ancient times were known to dance when they get excited to encourage other members of the nest to search for food. These movements can be shaking, wagging, buzzing, zig-zagging, and crashing into the members of the nest. This behavior was observed in a stingless bee, bumblebee, ants, and wasps. The theory about Waggle dance was first proposed by Martin Lindauer. He proposed the evolution of waggle dance that the first dance aided in the communication of information about the new nest location and food resources.
In the species Apis mellifera ligustica, the waggle dance is exhibited when the resource of food is 10 meters away from the nesting ground. A transitional dance is performed when the food resources are located at a distance of 20 to 30 meters farther from the hive. The third type of waggle dance with a higher frequency is performed when the flower patch is about 40 meters away from the nesting grounds. When the food resources are very close to the nest, a round dance is performed with little waggle in between. Therefore, both waggle dance and round dance are synonymous with each other.
Mechanism of the waggle dance:
When the honey bees fly, their body parts rub together and move synchronously. This accumulates an electric current in their body. However, during a waggle dance, the bees emit constant electric fields, both low and high frequencies. This in turn can induce passive antennal movements based on Coulomb’s law in stationary bees. They possess mechanoreceptor cells with electrically charged flagella which tends to move more strongly as the electric currents interact. This was first recorded from the axons of Johnston’s organ that indicates the electric field sensitivity. Hence, it is suggestive that the electric fields released from the surface of the bees trigger the mechanoreceptors to bring about communication between the members of the species. Waggle dance cannot be known as a language. This can misinterpret the waggle dance. A Linguist from Switzerland Ferdinand de Saussure proposed that two chief components make up a sign in a system of language. If the waggle dance is taken into consideration for this model, it was known that it does not possess the two components to be classified as a language.
The waggle dance happens in a back and forth motion, and the honey bees to move in a straight line. Then they repeat this motion in circles. The distance of the middle line known as the waggle run determines the approximate distance of the hive from the flower patch.
The direction of dance:
The angle by which the honey bee performs the waggle dance shows the direction inside the hive as well as outside the hive. The direction and angle by which the bee waggles from the straight position. They use the position of the sun for reference. If the sun is in different positions, the angle by which the bees fly remains the same. However, the direction of the flower patch would be different.
Round waggle dance:
The round dance of the bees suggests only one information on the flower patch location. It can suggest the distance of the flower from the hive. This dance does not involve the waggle run and does not tell any information about the flower patch’s direction.In the round dance, the honey bee walks in a circle way, turns around, and walks once again in the opposite direction. This movement takes place several times. However, there is a little waggle along with this movement when the bee turns around. The duration of this motion denotes the quality of the patch of the flowers that it has discovered.
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