The term “cytokine” is formed by the combination of two Greek words, “cyto” and “kinos,” meaning cell and movement, respectively.. The ultimate role of cytokines is to help regulate the immune response. An inflammatory cytokine or pro-inflammatory cytokine can be defined as a signaling molecule produced by the immune cells like helper T cells (Th) and other such cells that are concerned with promoting inflammation. Inflammation is a response mechanism of tissues against any injury, and it is grouped in two different phases- the acute phase includes an increase in the rate of blood flow and permeability of blood vessels along with the accrual of fluid, leukocytes, and certain inflammatory mediators like cytokines and the chronic phase which includes the development of humoral and cellular immune responses against the pathogens, which are present at the site of injury. There are several different cytokines present, such as chemokines, interferons, interleukins, and tumor necrosis factor. These cytokines are known to enhance inflammatory responses. Thus, inflammatory cytokines are involved in both acute and chronic inflammation.
Interleukin-1: also known as IL-1, have subtypes called IL-1a and b. These are secreted by mononuclear phagocytes, fibroblasts, and T and B lymphocytes. Both IL-1a and IL-1b provoke fever and increases the proliferation of T cells.
Tumor necrosis factor: commonly known as TNF, has two types â€“ TNF a and b, which attaches itself to receptors lying on the surface of target cells and is known to perform biological activities that are common to the target cells. TNF-a, or cachectin, is a trimeric molecule and is secreted by cells like activated macrophages, fibroblasts, and few natural killer cells.
Interleukin-6: IL-6 is a glycoprotein, having a molecular weight of about 21 to 28 kDa, and it is produced by mononuclear phagocytes, T cells, and fibroblasts, which is used in the actuation and differentiation of T cells.
Interleukin-11: IL-11 is secreted by the stromal cells of bone marrow and some fibroblasts.
Interleukin-8: They are also known as chemokines. IL-8, along with few other low molecular weight chemokines, are known to regulate the chemotactic migration and actuation of neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes where the inflammation has occurred.
Eotaxin: these are secreted by special epithelial and endothelial cells, which are stimulated by cytokines, and eosinophils, which are regulated by IL-3.
Interleukin-16: IL-16 is an uncommon cytokine that activates the chemotaxis process of T lymphocytes and initiates T-cell mediated inflammation in asthma.
Interleukin-17: IL-17 is secreted by activated T lymphocytes, and it triggers the production of IL-6 and IL-8.
Colony-stimulating factors: There are two colony-stimulating factors, namely, granulocyte-CSF (G-CSF) and granulocyte macrophage-CSF (GM-CSF). They are known to participate in acute inflammation.
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