Components of reproductive behavior of animals:
The components of reproductive sexual behavior between males and females are precopulatory, copulatory, and postcopulatory behavior. The male precopulatory behavior is categorized into three types such as chemical, tactile, and auditory communication. The chemical communication is also known as olfactory or gustatory, communication behavior including pheromone barrier framing by urine, flehmen phenomenon, chin resting, and standing behavior. Tactile communication behavior is licking and nuzzling behavior of the female perineal region by the male. Auditory communication behavior is a vocalization signal during courtship. The female precopulatory behavior is categorized into five types such as chemical, visual, auditory, tactile communication, and posture (movement clues). The chemical communication is done by the pheromones and other body fluids. An example of visual communication is chimpanzees, the perennial region of the female animals is swollen and reddening indicates the sexual receptive. The auditory communication during oestrus is different from the normal vocalization, for example, a mare sound is a snort. The tactile communication is licking, rubbing, and mutual grooming. The male copulatory behavior is categorized into five types such as erection, protrusion of penis, mounting, intromission, ejaculation, and dismounting. The female copulatory behavior is divided into three types such as oestrus pattern, detection, receptivity, and mating. Postcopulatory behavior is the refractory period. Some animals undergo death after reproductive behavior.
Hormones in reproductive behavior:
The nervous and endocrine system function is regulated by hormones such as follicle-stimulating hormone, estradiol, oxytocin, progesterone, steroids, corticoid gonadotrophin, etc. The hormones secreting glands are divided into two types such as the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Hypothalamus releasing hormones are gonadotropin, thyrotropin, corticotropin, growth hormone, and somatostatin. Pituitary gland secreting hormones are gonadotropin, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, adrenal corticotrophin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and growth hormones. The primary hormone of reproduction is produced by the pituitary glands such as follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin. The sex steroid hormones are estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone. The female sex hormones are produced by the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus. The hormones are estrogens and progesterone. Estrogens are produced during the estrus cycle when the female organism is sexually receptive. Estrus is the event that takes place during the menstrual cycle. Another female sex hormone is progesterone which is produced in the corpus luteum. The pituitary gland stimulates the production of a male sex hormone called testosterone by the adrenal cortex. These hormones regulate the development and production of sex cells.
The function of hormones in reproductive behavior is studied by replacing hormones, increasing or decreasing the hormone level, removing sex organs, and replacement of sex organs. The experiment was performed during the estrus cycle, the sexual behavior of the female rat to be in the form of lordosis to initiate copulation (proceptive). When the female rate ovaries are removed by ovariectomy, it cannot secrete the hormones estrogen and progesterone. The male rate cannot copulate with the ovariectomized female rate. If the hormones are injected to the ovariectomized female rate, it gives a lordosis behavioral response to the male. The lordosis behavior is increased according to the dose-dependent manner.
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