The electrons are moved from the substrate to the oxygen via a set of electron carriers. There are around 15 kinds of chemical groups which receive and transfer the electrons via the electron chain.
Flavin mononucleotide (FMN) â€“ At the initiation of the electron transport chain, first, the electrons are moved from the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) to FMN, which reduces into FMNH2. Here the movement of electrons is enhanced by the action of NADH dehydrogenase. Then the electrons are moved to a group of iron-sulfur complexes, which possess relatively higher attraction towards electrons.
Ubiquinone- It is an electron carrier found in the respiratory chain that is not bound with the proteins. They allow the molecule to travel between the flavoproteins and cytochromes.
Cytochromes- They are electron carriers having heme groups that help to move the electrons in a series from ubiquinone to molecular oxygen. There are five cytochromes found between molecular oxygen and ubiquinone.
Site of occurrence
During the electron transport process, the proton gradient is produced. The protons are pushed out of the mitochondrial matrix and moves inside the intermembrane space of the cell, which also helps in the production process of ATP. However, a proton gradient is known as a chemiosmotic process leading to ATP synthesis as it depends upon the higher concentrations of protons to produce â€œproton motive force.â€
The quantity of ATP produced is directly proportional to the number of drained protons near the inner mitochondrial membrane.
It consists of a set of redox reactions that mostly depends upon the protein groups to shift the transfer of electrons from a donor molecule to an acceptor molecule.
Due to this reaction, the proton gradient is created, which initiates the mechanical process to be altered into chemical energy, permitting ATP synthesis.
The protein groups are embedded within the inner mitochondrial membrane known as cristae in eukaryotes.
The matrix is surrounded by the inner mitochondrial membrane, where important enzymes like pyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate dehydrogenase are located.
With some alterations, this process also takes place in photosynthetic eukaryotes in the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts and prokaryotes.
Some other processes and cycles such as amino acid oxidation, citric acid cycle, and fatty acid oxidation are being utilized during the electron transport chain.
Can be illustrated through the redox reaction, that is,
O + Energy
O + Energy
The energy circulated through this process is an exothermic reaction, and when the electrons are allowed to pass through this series, three ATP molecules are produced.
The phosphate found in the matrix is transferred through the proton gradient, which is further used to produce more ATP molecules.
The method through which more ATP is produced through phosphorylation of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is known as oxidative phosphorylation, as the energy from hydrogen oxygenation is utilized throughout the process.
The ATP produced during this reaction is used as a source of energy during cellular reactions that are essential for life.
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