Community Health Planning,
Implementation, and Evaluation
Copyright Â© 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
The Community as Client
Copyright Â© 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 2
Community Health Nursing Practice
Copyright Â© 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 3
Client Example Characteristics Health
Individual Lisa McDonald Individual with various
problems, and needs
Family Moniz family Family system with
individual and group
Individual and family
strengths, problems, and
individuals and the family
Group Boy Scout
problems, and needs
Fulfillment of goals
Group member and
in a given state
group with common
interests, problems, and
Assessment of common
problems, needs, and
Application of nursing
process to identified
Organization A workplace
Organized group in a
common location with
shared governance and
Relationship of goals,
of organization to its
strengths, problems and
employee application of
nursing process to
An aggregate of people
in a common location
with organized social
Analysis of systems,
problems, and needs
participant, and health
Health Planning Model
Copyright Â© 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 4
Steps in the Health Planning
ïƒ˜ Meet with group leaders of aggregate to clarify mutual
ïƒ˜ Determine sociodemographic characteristics
ïƒ˜ Interview a key informant
ïƒ˜ Consider both positive and negative factors
ïƒ˜ Compare the aggregate with the â€œnormâ€
ïƒ˜ Research potential problems
ïƒ˜ Identify health problems and needs
ïƒ˜ Prioritize the identified problems and needs to create an
Copyright Â© 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 5
Four Types of Needs to Assess
ï‚˜ Expressed needs
ïƒ˜ Demand for services and the market behavior of the targeted
ï‚˜ Normative needs
ïƒ˜ Lack, deficit, or inadequacy of services determined by health
ï‚˜ Perceived needs
ïƒ˜ Wants and desires expressed by audience
ï‚˜ Relative needs
ïƒ˜ Gap showing health disparities between advantaged and
Copyright Â© 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 6
Factors for Determining Priorities
ï‚˜ Aggregates preferences
ï‚˜ Number of individuals affected by the health
ï‚˜ Severity of the health need or problem
ï‚˜ Availability of potential solutions
ï‚˜ Practical considerations such as skills, time,
and available resources
ï‚˜ May use Maslowâ€™s hierarchy of needs or
levels of prevention to further refine priorities
Copyright Â© 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 7
Community Involvement Is Essential
â€œStart where the people are!â€
ï‚˜ Five spheres of empowerment
ïƒ˜ Interpersonal (personal empowerment)
ïƒ˜ Intragroup (small group development)
ïƒ˜ Intergroup (community)
ïƒ˜ Interorganizational (coalition building)
ïƒ˜ Political action
â€“ Labonte (1994)
Copyright Â© 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 8
Steps in the Health Planning Model
ïƒ˜ Determine the intervention levels
â€¢ Subsystem, aggregate system, and/or suprasystem
ïƒ˜ Plan interventions for each system level
â€¢ Primary, secondary, or tertiary levels of prevention
ïƒ˜ Validate the practicality of the planned
interventions according to available resources
â€¢ Personal, aggregate, and suprasystem
Copyright Â© 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 9
Development of Goals and
ï‚˜ Goalsâ€”where we want to be
ï‚˜ Objectivesâ€”steps needed to get there
ïƒ˜ Specific measures
ïƒ˜ Instructions to guide population
ïƒ˜ Used to measure outcomes
Copyright Â© 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 10
Steps in the Health Planning Model
ïƒ˜ Often the most enjoyable stage for the nurse and
ïƒ˜ Implementation should follow the initial plan
ïƒ˜ Should include a variety of strategies
ïƒ˜ Prepare for unexpected problems
Copyright Â© 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 11
Type of Aggregate and System Level
Copyright Â© 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 12
Project Type of Aggregate System Level for Intervention
Rehabilitation group Group Subsystem and aggregate system
Textile industry Organization Aggregate system and suprasystem
Crime watch Group, organization,
and population group
Aggregate system and suprasystem
Community Aggregate system and suprasystem
Steps in the Health Planning Model
ïƒ˜ Include the participantâ€™s verbal or written feedback and the
nurseâ€™s detailed analysis
ïƒ˜ Reflect on each previous stage to determine the planâ€™s
strengths and weaknesses
ïƒ˜ Evaluate both formative (process) and summative
ïƒ˜ Communicate follow-up recommendations
Copyright Â© 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 13
Importance of Each Step in the
ï‚˜ Aggregate assessments must be thorough.
ïƒ˜ Should elicit answers to key questions about the aggregateâ€™s
health and demographic profile
ïƒ˜ Should compare this information with similar aggregates
presented in the literature
ï‚˜ The nurse must complete careful planning and set
goals that the nurse and the aggregate accept.
ïƒ˜ Mutual planning is very important.
ï‚˜ Interventions must include aggregate participation
and must meet the mutual goals.
ï‚˜ Evaluation must include process and product
evaluation and aggregate input.
Copyright Â© 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 14
Copyright Â© 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 15
Federal Legislation Affecting Health
ï‚˜ Hill-Burton Act
ï‚˜ Regional Medical Programs (RMP)
ï‚˜ Partnership for Health Program (PHP)
ï‚˜ Certificate of Need (CON)
ï‚˜ National Health Planning and Resources
Copyright Â© 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 16
Comprehensive Health Reform
ï‚˜ Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act
ïƒ˜ Preventive services based on evidence-based
ïƒ˜ National strategy to improve the nationâ€™s health
ïƒ˜ CMMS innovation center
ïƒ˜ National quality improvement strategy for services
and population health
ïƒ˜ Improved access to care
ïƒ˜ Reduction in the growth of Medicare spending
ïƒ˜ National workforce strategy
Copyright Â© 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 17
ï‚˜ Work collaboratively with health planners to
improve aggregate health
ï‚˜ Fuse technology with knowledge of health
care needs and skills
ï‚˜ Become directly involved in the planning
ï‚˜ Engage in aggregate-level projects
Copyright Â© 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 18
Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?
- Plagiarism free papers
- Timely delivery
- Any deadline
- Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
- Subject-relevant academic writer
- Adherence to paper instructions
- Ability to tackle bulk assignments
- Reasonable prices
- 24/7 Customer Support
- Get superb grades consistently
Online Academic Help With Different Subjects
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
What discipline/subjects do you deal in?
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
What if I don’t like the paper?
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
- When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
- We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.
In the event that you don’t like your paper:
- The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
- We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
- Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.
Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
What if the paper is plagiarized?
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
When will I get my paper?
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
Will anyone find out that I used your services?
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
How our Assignment Help Service Works
1. Place an order
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2. Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3. Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4. Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.