Blood Gas Detection by Peripheral Chemoreceptor:
Upon the decline of the partial pressure of arterial oxygen, peripheral chemoreceptors send rapid impulses and this relationship is non-linear. The steepest rise in impulse is brought about only after the decline is below 80mmHg.Thus, it can be concluded that the partial pressure at which the body starts sending signals is the same partial pressure at which the body starts to lose carriage capacity. Peripheral chemoreceptors are not that good in sensing arterial carbon dioxide as that sensed by central chemoreceptors.
Signal Transduction of Peripheral Chemoreceptors:
Signals from peripheral chemoreceptors are sent to the medulla oblongata by neurotransmitter release triggered by the influx of calcium into the cell, after depolarization. The response of potassium channels to hypoxia depends on the type of species. Research suggests that the response of potassium channel is also influenced by AMP-activated protein kinase; however, this is not entirely studied.
The Action of Peripheral Chemoreceptors:
The peripheral chemoreceptors send afferent fibers to brainstem respiratory centers namely the inspiratory center, where there occurs change in the respiratory drive corresponding to the condition detected. For example, when there is a drop in arterial oxygen concentration, then the respiratory drive is increased by impulses sent through afferent fibers to the inspiratory center. Here due to these impulses, there are increases in alveolar ventilation to bring partial pressure of oxygen back to normal. Further respiratory rate and tidal volume are increased. Blood flow to hypoxic-sensitive organs like the brain and kidneys are increased and cardiac output is also increased so as to supply blood to all parts of the body. Although in the supranormal partial pressure of oxygen, the afferent impulse rate is reduced; they do not significantly bring down the respiratory drive. Effect against arterial carbon dioxide is not as efficient as that exerted in case of arterial oxygen changes. The afferent impulse from the carotid chemoreceptors is the primary stimuli to conditions like respiratory acidosis, alkalosis, and so on.
Respiratory Acidosis and Respiratory Alkalosis:
Respiratory acidosis occurs when there is more retention of carbon dioxide than usual. This happens in conditions like lung diseases, reduced respiratory muscle activity, etc. Due to signals sent by peripheral chemoreceptors, there occurs buffering action to take up a hydrogen ion and further there will also be metabolic compensation where kidneys conserve filtered HCO3 excreting more H+. Respiratory alkalosis deals with excessive loss of carbon dioxide by conditions like fever and aspirin poisoning. Here, the system responds in the opposite way like releasing hydrogen ions and conservation of hydrogen ions by kidneys.
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